An Annotated Chronology of Relations in the 20th Century
By Ken Herold

Second Edition, February 1994, International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet

The following is a chronology of selected events in the 20th century bearing on the relationship between the nations of Tibet and the United States of America, beginning with the year 1900 and ending in 1994. This research guide tells what events are said to have happened according to a variety of historical sources and is not, therefore, a logically-consistent, factual narrative. Some entries in the first edition have been consolidated with the addition of annotated events from the following sources:

Bibliographic Annotations (key)

1900/1900 Tibet ( Bod, in Tibetan) celebrates National Year 2027, Tibetan calendar year of Iron-Mouse. []

MAR 20 U.S. announces policy of equal commercial access to China, so-called 'open door'. [HE, 303, 309]

MAY 27 Thirteenth Dalai Lama Thupten Gyatso, age 24, has held power since end of Regency in 1895. [KD, 7]

JUL 4 U.S. celebrates 124th year since Independence. []

AUG 11 British Viceroy of India Curzon sends first of two letters directly to Dalai Lama after attempts to negotiate with Tibetan authorities fail. [KD, 12]

SEP 30 Tsar Nicholas of Russia receives monk Dorjieff at Yalta with letter from Dalai Lama. [KD, 13]


SEP 6 President McKinley mortally wounded by assassin. [HE, 303]

SEP 7 Boxer Protocol punishes China for uprisings against foreigners, U.S. troops join punitive force. [HE, 303, 311]

SEP 14 McKinley dies, succeeded by T. Roosevelt. [HE, 303]


AUG 2 China Times article describes Russian-Tibetan agreement. [KD, 15]

NOV 13 Curzon, fearing Russian Tsarist designs on Tibet and India, plans an expedition to force Tibet under British hegemony. [PH, 160]


JAN 8 Curzon argues for a mission to Lhasa, London recommends continued negotiations with Tibet and China. [HR, 84]

APR London approves diplomatic mission to Tibetan border. [PH, 162]

MAY Curzon briefs Younghusband on secret Tibet mission. [PH, 162]

JUN Younghusband party with 200 troops leaves Kalimpong, India, for Tibet. [PH, 162]

JUL 18 British mission begins talks with Tibetans at border station of Khamba Jong. Tibet withdraws and British are recalled after five months. London then approves an armed expedition no further than Gyantse. Russia and China officially protest. [PH, 162]

DEC 12 Younghusband forces cross Jelap Pass into Tibet. [PH, 164]


JAN 8 British forces cross Tang La and reaches Tuna at 16,000 feet. [PH, 167]

MAR 3 Britain and Russia pledge independence of Tibet. [SF]

MAR 31 More than 700 Tibetan troops killed at Guru. [PH, 171-176]

APR 1-3 Younghusband mission reportedly attacked. [SF]

APR 11 British troops reach sight of Gyantse. [PH, 177]

MAY 9 Younghusband expedition described. [SF]

MAY 30 Reports of mission attack. [SF]

JUN 26 Reinforcements reach British force at Gyantse. [PH, 180]

JUL 5 300 Tibetan casualties in British attack at Gyantse. [PH, 180]

JUL 30 Dalai Lama flees northwards into exile, Gaden Tri Rinpoche named Regent. [KD, 21]V JUL 31 British forces 45 miles from Lhasa, facing no Tibetan resistance. [PH, 182-183]

AUG 2 Younghusband expedition enters Lhasa and finds no evidence of Russian involvement in Tibetan affairs, the Dalai Lama having fled to Urga, Mongolia. [PH, 184-186]

SEP 7 Anglo-Tibetan Convention signed at Lhasa with Tibet as a sovereign power. Britain establishes a trade station at Gyantse. Telegraph lines from Kalimpong to Lhasa remain operable. (See text, [HR, 268-271]) [PH, 190-191]

SEP 19 Further reports on expedition. [SF]

SEP 23 British troops withdraw from Lhasa. [PH, 192]


1905 Curzon resigns viceroyalty amidst controversy over unnecessary military invasion. [KD, 22]

1905 Chao Erh-feng begins attempt to bring Kham and neighboring regions of Tibet under Chinese control. [KD, 24-25]

JAN 30 Younghusband treaty instructions disclosed. [SF]


JAN 10 British-Russian rivalry in Tibet denied. [TT]

JAN 19 Chinese attitude on 1904 treaty reported. [TT]

MAR 22 Effect of visit to India by Panchen Lama on British policy. [TT]

APR Anglo-Chinese Convention, excluding Tibet, declares Chinese acceptance of the Lhasa Treaty of 1904. Britain recognizes Chinese 'suzerainty' over Tibet. (See text, [HR, 2721-273]) [PH, 201]

APR 9 Russian czar's message. [TT]

APR 11 British exploration party in Tibet. [TT]

APR 24 Signing of Anglo-Chinese Convention. [TT]

APR 25 Signing of convention. [TT]

JUN Chao Erh-feng ruthlessly destroys temples and villages in eastern Tibet. [KD, 25]

JUN 18 Trade with Western Tibet. [TT]

AUG 2 Trade statistics. [TT]

AUG 14 Weekly post to Gartok established. [TT]

SEP Dalai Lama visits Kumbum Monastery, birthplace of Je Tsong Khapa, in Amdo region of Tibet. [KD, 23]

SEP 5 British-Russian negotiations on Tibet. [TT]

NOV 22 Movements of the Dalai Lama. [TT]

1907/ 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention, also excluding Tibet, declares Russian acceptance of status quo in Tibet. [PH, 201]

JAN 5 Dalai Lama to return to Lhasa. [TT]

FEB 6 Progress of Sven Hedin exploration in Tibet. [TT]

FEB 18 Sven Hedin exploration. [TT]

MAR 11-12 Sven Hedin exploration. [TT]

JUL 19 British trade commissioner arrives at Gyantse. [TT]

JUL 24 Tibetan army reorganized; coinage established. [TT]

AUG 24 First Tibetan-language newspaper established. [TT]

AUG 31 Signing of Anglo-Russian Agreement relating to Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet, at St. Petersburg. See text. [HR, 273-275]

SEP 25-26 Text of Anglo-Russian Agreement. [TT]

DEC 26 Field Museum expedition to Tibet. [SF]


1908 China mounts diplomatic pressure in the Chumbi Valley and aggression against eastern Tibet. [NB, 220]

JAN 15 Points of dispute between Peking and London on Lhasa Convention. [TT]

JAN 18 China-Great Britain trade negotiations. [TT]

FEB 4 Chumbi valley to be evacuated by Britain. [TT]

FEB 6 Native trade agent appointed at Gyantse. [TT]

MAR 14 Chinese amban to take office. [TT]

APR 20 Anglo-Chinese trade regulations signed in Calcutta. (See text, [HR, 275-280]) [KD, 32]

APR 24 Escort of Indian troops appointed to Gyantse trade post. [TT]

MAY 12 Chinese amban appointed; visit of Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to Peking announced. [TT]

AUG 10 Suppression of the revolt in Eastern Tibet. [TT]

SEP 17-18 Sven Hedin's second journey in Tibet. [TT]

SEP 23 Chinese press comments and arrangements for visit of Dalai Lama. [TT]

SEP 27 Dalai Lama received in Peking, meets the U.S. ambassador William W. Rockhill, and the Manchu emperor. [KD, 27]

OCT 21 Dalai Lama leaves Peking for Tibet. [KD, 31]

NOV 3 Taft elected President. [HE, 304]

NOV 10 Sven Hedin's travels . [TT]

NOV 30 U.S.-Japanese agreement on status quo in Asia, including 'open door' to China. [HE, 304]

DEC 22 Dalai Lama's departure from Peking. [TT]


1909 Taft's 'dollar diplomacy' increases U.S. investment in China. [HE, 304]

JAN 11 Hedin describes British influence in Tibet. [TT]

FEB 12,24 Hedin describes Tibetan customs and geography. [TT]

MAR 11 Tibetan mission to St. Petersburg. [TT]

AUG 13 Dalai Lama at Nagchu. [TT]

SEP 24 China proposes postal service to Tibet. [TT]

NOV 30 Plans for Dalai Lama to visit St. Petersburg. [TT]

DEC Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa. [HC, 49]

DEC Dalai Lama establishes Foreign Ministry. [KD, 32]

1910/ 1910 Szechuan leader Chao Erh-feng sends troops to invade Tibet. [NB, 220]

JAN 3 Chinese troops begin random killings in Lhasa. [KD, 34]

FEB 2,000 Chinese troops enter Lhasa and the Dalai Lama flees to Kalimpong, India. [PH, 201]

FEB 25 Chinese troops occupy Lhasa. [SF]

FEB 27 Chinese troops occupy Lhasa. [SF]

FEB 28 Dalai Lama appeals to Russia. [TT]

MAR 1 Tri Rinpoche appointed head of Council of Shapes. [TT]

MAR 3 Dalai Lama at Darjeeling. [TT]

MAR 14 Dalai Lama calls on Viceroy Minto in Calcutta. [KD, 37]

JUL 15 Official British blue-book issued on relations with Tibet. [TT]

JUL 30 Indian troops ordered to be ready to enter Tibet. [TT]

AUG 2 Britain and Tibet policy; Britain fears an attack on its agencies in Tibet. [TT]

AUG 5 Chinese request Dalai Lama's return to Lhasa. [TT]

AUG 7 Report Chinese troops defeated. [SF]

SEP 2 Dalai Lama negotiations with China. [TT]

SEP 23 Lamas at Lhasa advise Dalai Lama not to return to the capital. [TT]

OCT 15 Execution order angers populace. [SF]

NOV 3 Younghusband comments on British policy. [TT]

DEC 2 Dalai Lama renews request to visit Britain. [TT]


JAN Panchen Lama visits Lhasa while Dalai Lama is in exile in India. [KD, 40]

JAN 21 Dalai Lama expresses wish to visit England. [TT]

JUN 29 Tibetan postal service noted. [TT]

OCT 10 Chinese Revolution begins. [HE, 312]

NOV 2 Chinese troops attack Sera monastery, Tibetan War Department declares war on Chinese troops in Lhasa. [KD, 45]

NOV 20 British plans to survey India-Tibet border abandoned. [TT]

NOV 28 Dalai Lama expected to return to Lhasa. [TT]

1912/ 1912 Tibet pushes all Chinese forces east beyond the Mekong River. [NB, 220]

JAN 16 China announces plans for new province, Hsikang, encompassing part of Eastern Tibet; Lord Curzon comments. [TT]

JAN 23 Reports of Tibetan revolt against Chinese. [TT]

MAR Lonchen Shatra (later appointed Tibetan delegate to the Simla Conference) in Calcutta to ask for British arms. [DW, 159]

APR Soldiers and monks from Sera monastery arrest and execute pro-Chinese Cabinet ministers. [KD, 45]

APR New Chinese Republic declares intention to make lands of Mongols and Tibetans into Chinese provinces. [FW, 54]

APR 5 Tibetans threaten attack on Chinese forces. [TT]

MAY 11 Panchen Lama at Shigatse; Chinese surrender at Gyantse. [TT]

MAY 17 Fighting reported in Lhasa, monastery said destroyed. [TT]

JUN Dalai Lama formally reproclaims Tibetan independence. [HC, 51]

JUN 1 Text of confidential note on the northeast frontier section of the India-Tibet border. [DW, 370]

JUN 1 Fighting reported in Lhasa. [TT]

JUN 25 Dalai Lama leaves for Lhasa. [TT]

JUL 12 Tibetans capture Litang and Batang. [TT]

AUG 3 Further fighting reported in Lhasa. [TT]

AUG 15 Reported agreement between Dalai Lama and Chinese amban. [TT]

AUG 21 Chinese envoys intercepted and imprisoned by Tibet; Dalai Lama refuses Chinese indemnity demands. [TT]

AUG 27 Dalai Lama and Chinese amban reach agreement on Chinese surrender. [KD, 48]

SEP 4 Mongolian mission to Tibet refused permission to enter at Darjeeling. [TT]

SEP 18 Chinese refugees begin arriving at Indian border. [TT]

OCT 28 Ignoring Tibetan rejection of such claims, China purports to restore Dalai Lama's position and rank. [HR, 105]

NOV 1 Chinese troops fighting near Litang. [TT]

NOV 5 Wilson elected President. [HE, 304]

NOV 21 More fighting reported at Lhasa. [TT]


1913 Dalai Lama arranges for four young Tibetans to be educated in England. [MG, 143]

JAN Dalai Lama enters Lhasa. [KD, 49]

JAN 3 Chinese force routed. [SF]

JAN 6 Last of Chinese troops leave Lhasa for Kalimpong. [PH, 204]

JAN 11 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Tibet and Mongolia. [DD, 73]

FEB Tibetan declaration of independence issued. [KD, 49]

APR 15 Russian czar receives Tibetan envoys. [TT]

APR 25 Tibetan students arrive at Plymouth, England. [TT]

MAY 27 Dalai Lama proposes cessation of hostilities with Chinese government. [TT]

JUL 7 Chinese troops repulsed at Hsiang-cheng. [TT]

JUL 29 Lord Curzon announces Tibet-China-Great Britain conference. [TT]

OCT Simla Conference opens with Tibet, Britain and China on equal basis. [NB, 221]

OCT 22 British attitude to Tibetan demands for autonomy. [TT]

OCT 26 Role of women in Tibet described. [SF]


MAR Tibet and Britain negotiate Indo-Tibetan frontier, the so-called McMahon Line. (Detailed maps: [DW, 1980/181]) [NB, 221]

APR Simla Conference ends in discord: Tibet and Britain agree to Chinese 'suzerainty' over Tibet only if China agrees to Tibetan autonomy. China refuses to ratify pact, thus leaving Tibet's independent status unchanged. (Detailed discussion: [DW, 162+]) [HC, 221]

MAY 26 Russia assents to Tibetan autonomy agreement. [TT]

JUL 3 Text of Convention between Great Britain, China and Tibet. [DW, 386]

JUL 3 Text of Anglo-Tibetan Trade Regulations. [DW, 390]

AUG As European hostilities escalate into World War, the Dalai Lama offers 1,000 soldiers to fight for British side. [KD, 54]

NOV 7 German surrender to Japanese and British at Tsingtao, China. [HE, 395]


NOV 26 Friendly relations reported between Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama. [TT]


APR 3 Report on British trade opportunities in Tibet. [TT]

NOV 7 Wilson reelected President. [HE, 441]


1917 Postal map of China published by Peking shows Tibet, Mongolia, and East Turkestan as Chinese regions, though not including the Aksai Chin region of the Tibetan plateau. [DW, 81]


1918 Tibetan troops, trained and equipped by Britain, capture Chamdo, Draya, Markham, Gonjo and De-ge. As they approach Nyarong and Batang, China asks Britain to mediate and Britain helps China by refusing Tibet arms. [DW, 187]

JUL 22 Chinese helpless against Tibetan revolt. [TT]

JUL 29 Chinese surrender Chamdo to Tibetan forces. [TT]

AUG 19 British consul, Teichman, in Chengdu negotiates a ceasefire between Kham and China, dividing Kham into Lhasa-administered W. Kham (Chamdo) and 'independent' E. Kham east of Yangtse under nominal control of China (Kanting). [KD, 56]

SEP 10 Hostilities cease, Tibetans demand treaty modifications. [TT]

OCT 10 Supplemental ceasefire agreement signed. [TS, 262]


JAN 3 History of Chinese-Tibetan dispute. [TT]

MAR 4 British parliament discusses Tibetan autonomy settlement. [TT]

APR 2 Death of Lonchen Shatra reported. [TT]

SEP 13 Hitch reported in Chinese negotiations with Tibet. [TT]

SEP 18 Prospects of settlement of the China-Tibet dispute. [TT]

NOV 7 Chicago bank agrees to provide 5,000,000 pound loan to China. [TT]

NOV 27 Tibet may invoke aid of Nepal and Bhutan in the event of hostilities with China. [TT]


1920 Yajima Yasujiro returns to Japan after training 200 Tibetan soldiers from 1914-17. [MG, 143]

JAN Britain suggests a boundary conference at Lhasa. Tibet declines and entertains a Chinese delegation from Kansu for talks and eventually agrees to a ceasefire. [DW, 189]

JAN 16 League of Nations formally inaugurated, the U.S. is not a member having rejected the Treaty of Versailles. Tibet does not become a member either, though China does. [HE, 441-442]

AUG 28 Prospects of railway and wool development in Tibet. [TT]

OCT 13 Lord Curzon comments on Tibet. [TT]

NOV Sir Charles Bell in Lhasa through October of 1921 to urge better relations between Tibet and Britain. [DW, 189]

NOV 2 Harding elected President. [HE, 443]

NOV 17 Arrangements for Bell's visit to Lhasa. [TT]

NOV 29 Bell arrives in Lhasa. [TT]

1921/ 1921 National Assembly approves build-up of Tibetan army to 17,000 soldiers. [MG, 142]

MAR 8 Report on Bell's mission to Tibet. [TT]

MAY 18 Report on the health of the Dalai Lama. [TT]

JUN 7 Teichman lectures on the Kham region. [TT]

JUN 15,30 Reports on the Everest expedition. [TT]

OCT 2 British exploring expedition in Tibet. [SF]

OCT 31 Bell suggests a new British treaty with Tibet. [TT]

DEC 12 Bell's mission to Tibet ends. [TT]

DEC 15 Life in and customs of Tibet described. [TT]

DEC 17 Bell interviewed. [TT]

1922/ 1922 Actions by Lungshar provoke war preparations by Nepal and Tibet, but the Dalai Lama settles the controversy peacefully. [HR, 133]

1922 Lhasa government demands contribution from Tashilhunpo for growing Tibetan army. [MG, 185]

FEB 6 Washington Disarmament Conference ends, confirming China 'open door' policy. Japan agrees to return Shantung to China. [HE, 441, 488]

APR 15 Description of Tibetan geology. [TT]

JUN 9 Rongbuk monastery described by Everest party. [TT]

SEP 19 China Trade Act becomes U.S. law, defining China to include Manchuria, Mongolia, Hong Kong, Macao, and Thibet sic. []

OCT 2 Negative description of the customs of Tibetan lamas. [TT]

NOV 4 British Buddhist mission refused permission to visit Lhasa. [TT]


1923 Dalai Lama orders troops under Tsarang to put off revolt by Drepung monks. [MG, 144]

1923 An English school opens in Gyantse. [MG, 112]

APR 2,23 Accounts of the British Buddhist mission planned for Tibet. [TT]

MAY 17 Photograph of the Dalai Lama published. [TT]

AUG 2 Harding dies in office, Coolidge assumes Presidency. [HE, 443]


1924 Pro-Chinese Sixth Panchen Lama enters period of exile in China. [LT, 38]

1924 Tsarong's request for military representation at Tsongdu denied. [MG, 144]

MAY 2,16 Photographs of Tibetans published. [TT]

MAY 4 Religious mysteries of Tibet described. [SF]

MAY 26 Russian allegations of British activity in Tibet. [TT]

MAY 29 Chinese press reports on British activities in Tibet. [TT]

JUN 4 British naturalist expedition to Tibet described. [TT]

OCT 9 British political mission to Tibet; Mongolians from Urga arrive in Nakcho with petition for Dalai Lama. [TT]

NOV 4 Coolidge elected President. [HE, 444]

DEC 2 Tibetan army commander to visit India. [TT]

DEC 6 British (Ward-Cawdor) expedition to Tibet. [TT]


1925 Tsarong relieved of army command, condition of forces deteriorate. [MG, 144]

FEB 27 Panchen Lama visits Peking. [TS, 263]

MAR 22 Tibetan lamas visit Paris. [SF]

APR 25 Tibetan lamas received in Berlin. [TT]

NOV 24 Monastery at Labrang described. [TT]

1926/ 1926 Tibet represented at Nilang Boundary Commission along with border territory of Tehri and Britain. [D1, 259]

1926 English school at Gyantse forced to close due to opposition of monasteries. [MG, 112]

MAR 4 Electrical equipment convoy massacred in Tibet. [SF]

JUL 18 Devil dances of Tibet depicted. [SF]


1927 German geologist Emil Trinkler visits the Aksai Chin area, calling it the westernmost plateau of Tibet. [DW, 83]

1927 Chiang Kai-shek sets up new Chinese government at Nanking, writes Dalai Lama offering his total support if Tibet would become a Chinese province. [KD, 57]


1928 Panchen Lama urges China to assume responsibility over Tibet. [DW, 192]

1928 Chinese warlord Liu invades Kham-China borderlands and his troops are pushed back into Szechuan. [MP, 12]

MAY 27 Polyandry in Tibet described. [SF]

JUN Peking falls to Nationalists. [CQ1, 75]

JUN 13 Roerich describes conditions in Tibet. [TT]

JUL 25 U.S. is first country to recognize Nationalists as national government of China. [CQ1, 75]

NOV 6 Hoover elected President. [HE, 444]


JAN 30 Tibet invited to join Chinese Nationalist movement. [TT]


1930 Charles Suydam Cutting is the first American to visit Tibet. [TS, 267]

1930 Chiang Kai-shek sends two missions to Lhasa. Dalai Lama urges China to supply arms to Tibet and to return to Tibet areas previously under Tibetan control. [DW, 192]

MAY 20 Question in British parliament on Tibet's relations with Britain, Russia, India, Nepal and China. [TT]

OCT Descriptions and photographs of Minya Konka range on China-Tibet border by National Geographic. [NG, 385-437]

1931/ 1931 Dalai Lama writes political testament setting forth policy of friendly relations with both Britain and China. [HR, 132]

SEP Dalai Lama and Chiang negotiate an uneasy local truce in Kham. [KD, 59]

SEP 18 Japan invades Manchuria. [HE, 488]

OCT 31 Sir Charles Bell describes an independent Tibet in Foreign Affairs. He had become friends with the Dalai Lama in India. [AC, 130]

NOV Chinese Soviet Republic created in Kiangsi Province under Mao. [HE, 483]


JAN 7 Stimson Doctrine says U.S. opposed to attacks on Chinese sovereignty or territorial integrity. [HE, 442]

JAN 29 Japan attacks Shanghai and League of Nations endorses Stimson Doctrine. [HE, 442]

APR Warlord Liu Wen-hui again invades Kham borderlands, breaking armistice agreed to by Nationalists. Within five months Chinese troops push Tibetans back to the Yangtse and threaten Chamdo. [HR, 135]

AUG Szechuan chieftain Liu Wen-hui fighting Tibetan troops. Chinghai governor also hostile to Tibet. [DW, 192]

AUG Dalai Lama wires Government of India for help and diplomatic intervention at Nanking. [HR, 135]

AUG 12 Frontier fighting between China and Tibet. [TT]

SEP Britain helps Tibet achieve ceasefire with Szechuan. [FW, 60]

NOV 8 Roosevelt elected President. [HE, 445]

DEC 31 Tibetan monks leave Switzerland. [TT]


1933 Tibetans sign local armistice with Governor Ma of Chinghai, ceding territory east of the Yangtse but the Yakalo district to the west. [HR, 136]

MAY 25 Tangku Armistice formalizes Japanese control over Manchuria and frees Chinese Nationalist forces to attack Communists. [HE, 483]

DEC 17 Death of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama at Lhasa, ending Tibet's foreign policy of non-alignment. (Text of his last political testament: [KD, 143-146]) [DW, 193]

DEC 20 Death of the Dalai Lama reported. [TT]

DEC 20 Finance Minister Lungshar mounts an unsuccessful coup d'etat in Lhasa. [JA, 20]

DEC 21 Position of the Panchen Lama in China described. [TT]


1934 Chinese Communist "Long March" retreat enters parts of eastern Tibet and is attacked by fierce Golok and Mantzu tribes and Tibetan troops. [LT, 72-73]

JAN Tsongdu, Tibet's National Assembly, elects Reting Rinpoche as Regent of Tibet. [TS, 276]

JAN 22 General Huang Mu-sung in Lhasa on Chinese mission. [TT]

FEB 13 Chinese mission at Lhasa. [TT]

MAR 23 Chinese mission in Lhasa. [TT]

APR Huang Mu-sung arrives in Lhasa via eastern Tibet to offer condolences on passing of Dalai Lama. [TS, 276]

APR 6 Russia alleges British designs on Tibet. [TT]

MAY 23 Panchen Lama in Shanghai. [TT]

MAY 25 Biography of the Panchen Lama. [TT]

MAY 31 National Assembly demands increased powers; Lungshar punished for plot; Panchen Lama's correspondence. [TT]

JUN 1,7 National Assembly's demands; Lungshar's punishment. [TT]

JUN 6 Panchen Lama's correspondence. [TT]

JUN 7 Panchen Lama visits British warship. [TT]

JUN 18 Dalai Lama's correspondence published. [TT]

AUG 16 Chinese political mission in Lhasa. [TT]

SEP 6 Chinese mission in Lhasa. [TT]

SEP 13 Proclamation by Chinese mission in Lhasa. [TT]

OCT Chinese Gen. Huang Mu-sung leaves Lhasa unable to convince the Tibetan Government to submit to Chinese authority. Regent Reting agrees to permit Panchen Lama to return to Lhasa but without the military escort China demands. [DW, 194]

OCT Chinese liaison left behind at Lhasa eventually forms a Chinese Mission, equipped with radio. [MG, 127,130]

NOV 19 Possibility of the return of the Panchen Lama to Tibet. [TT]

DEC 6 Panchen Lama's brother in India. [TT]


1935 Lost Horizon published in U.S., popularizes a mythical "Shangri-La", set in a "Tibet" dominated by Europeans and Chinese and where "Tibetans" appear only as servants. [] 1935 Charles Suydam Cutting makes second visit to Tibet. [TS, 267]

1935 Reginald Fox joins new British mission to Lhasa. Mission has only the second radio set in the whole country. [MG, 120,130]

JAN Mao elected Communist Party chairman. [HE, 484]

MAY 3 Communist Chinese threat to Eastern Tibet. [TT]

JUN 13 British representative invited to Lhasa; Panchen Lama in China. [TT]

JUL 6 Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, is born in the Amdo region of Tibet at Takster. Tibet will pay ransom to local Chinese authorities for his freedom to travel. [JA, 8]

OCT Communists establish new center at Yenan. [HE, 484]

NOV 21 Panchen Lama's return to Lhasa delayed. [TT]

DEC 13 Exploration of Western Tibet by Tucci reported. [TT]

DEC 14 Exploration of Western Tibet by Tucci further reported. [TT]


1936 Lhasa sends three search parties for incarnation of Dalai Lama. [D2, 156]

1936 Tibet invites British mission to modernize Tibetan army and assist in negotiations with China for the return of Panchen Lama. [LT, 73]

1936 Richardson and other British officials visit Lhasa for five months to bolster pro-India faction in Tibet. [DW, 194]

MAY 7 Portents sought for new Dalai Lama; position of the Panchen Lama. [TT]

MAY 21 Position of the Panchen Lama. [TT]

OCT 1 Search for the Dalai Lama under way. [TT]

OCT 29 Search parties leave. [TT]

NOV 3 Roosevelt re-elected. [HE, 447]

NOV 19 Panchen Lama reportedly at Jyekundo. [TT]

DEC 19 British mission diaries excerpted. [TT]


1937 Fourteenth Dalai Lama discovered by search party. Moslem warlord demands ransom of 300,000 silver dollars to permit party to return to Lhasa. [D2, 156]

1937 Charles Suydam Cutting makes third visit to Tibet. [TS, 267]

1937 Burma constitutionally detached from India. [FW, 75]

FEB Main body of Gould's mission leaves Lhasa, but British Mission in Lhasa retains radio transmitter in order to counter Chinese. [HR, 147]

APR 15 British Mission diary excerpts, with description of Tibetan new year ceremonies. [TT]

MAY 27 Great Prayer festival at Lhasa described. [TT]

JUN 5 Further British mission diary excerpts and photograph. [TT]

JUL 25 Peking overrun by Japanese troops. Nationalist Chinese withdraw to southern China. [MS, 13]

AUG Panchen Lama moves to Rashi Gompa on the Tibetan border. [HR, 146]

OCT 28 Panchen Lama said banned from Tibet. [TT]

NOV 27 Color film of Tibet by F.S. Chapman. [TT]

NOV 29 More color film of Tibet by Chapman. [TT]

DEC 1 Sixth Panchen Lama dies in exile at Jyekundo. Seventh incarnation is disputed between Tibetan and Chinese candidates. [TS, 283]

DEC 4 Obituary and photograph of the Panchen Lama. [TT]


1938 Regent instructs search party to bring child Dalai Lama to Lhasa. [HC, 55]

NOV 18 Japan rejects 'open door' policy in China. [HE, 443]

NOV 30 Roosevelt approves $25 million loan to support Chiang Kai-shek at crucial juncture in his rise to power in China. [MS, 27]


APR 19,20 Curzon-Midleton controversy in British Tibet policy reported. [TT]

APR 22,26 Further Curzon-Midleton Tibet policy correspondence. [TT]

JUN 7 Tibetan new year ceremonies described. [TT]

JUL Tsongdu meets in the Potala and confirms the Taktser candidate as the 14th Dalai Lama. [TS, 284]

AUG Dalai Lama begins overland journey to Lhasa. [D2, 156]

SEP 1 Germany invades Poland, commencing Second World War. [HE, 491]

OCT 2 Einstein signs letter advising Roosevelt of possibility of German atomic bomb research and development. [RP, 4]

OCT 8 Dalai Lama enters Lhasa and receives foreign dignitaries from Britain, Bhutan, China, and Nepal. [HC,60]

OCT 9 Description of the Dalai Lama's ceremonial entry into Lhasa. [TT]

OCT 11 Roosevelt receives Einstein letter and the U.S. embarks on a race for nuclear arms. [RP, 4]

OCT 13 Confidence of the Tibetan Cabinet. [TT]

OCT 28 Tibetan Cabinet confident. [TT]

NOV 4 Photograph and description of Dalai Lama entering Lhasa. [TT]

NOV 15 Explanation of incarnation of Dalai Lamas. [TT]


FEB 22 Dalai Lama, four years old, installed in minority as temporal and spiritual leader of Tibet. [JA, 12]

MAR 7 $20 million loan arranged by U.S. to Chiang regime in return for future tin shipments. [MS, 32]

SEP Britain temporarily closes Burma Road, cutting supply route to and from Nationalist China. [MS, 35]

NOV Roosevelt elected to third term. []

NOV 30 U.S. approves $100 million for Chiang regime after Japan formally recognizes its puppet regime in China. Chiang's opposition to Communists is strengthened. Chinese Minister Soong submits plan to U.S. for secret air force to bomb Japan from China. [MS, 37]

DEC 19 Roosevelt plans secret terror bombing of Japanese cities from air bases in Nationalist China. [MS, 74]


1941 Dalai Lama begins intensive religious education. [D2, 156]

1941 Regency passes from Reting Rinpoche to Tathag (Taktra) Rinpoche, Senior Tutor to the Dalai Lama. [MG, 138]

MAR 19 India-Sinkiang boundary dispute resolution expected. [NY]

MAR 31 Chiang regime formally enters Lend-Lease program whereby the President can, at his sole discretion, approve military shipments to China. [MS, 56]

APR 15 Roosevelt authorizes U.S. military personnel to form mercenary force to fight against Japan in China. [SS, 84]

APR 23 Roosevelt approves $43 million in arms to Chiang, followed by additional $100 million. [MS, 56]

JUN 9 First 'Flying Tigers' leave for China under contract to a private corporation for secret air operations. [MS, 77]

JUL 23 Roosevelt formally approves U.S. military plan for incendiary bombing of Japan from bases in China. [MS, 81]

JUL 26 U.S. leads international embargo against Japan, cutting oil supplies and demanding Japan withdraw from China. [MS, 59]

DEC U.S. mercenary air force based at Kunming in Yunnan to protect Burma Road traffic. Kunming is destination point for supplies flown over the "Hump." [SS, 74]

DEC 7 Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, leads to U.S. declaration of war. [HE, 502]

DEC 9 NYT editorial hopes for Chinese assistance in war against Japan. [NY]


1942 Bureau of Foreign Affairs created under the Kashag. [MG, 145]

FEB Flying Tigers based in Burma (Magwe, Lashio, Loiwing, Toungoo). [SS, 87]

FEB 9 Roosevelt instructs Stilwell to inform Chiang that upon Japan's defeat China would recover all (unspecified) 'lost territory' from Ching Dynasty. Congress approves $500 million loan to corrupt Chiang regime. [MS, 96, 98]

MAR 16 U.S. military propaganda plan for widespread publicity in the U.S. boosting Chiang's image as leader of all China. [MS, 107]

MAY 6 Japanese forces conquer the Philippines, a U.S. Territory. [HE, 503]

JUN 21 Defeat at Tobruk causes Allied military to divert warplanes and weapons from China and secret air force. [MS, 107]

JUL 2 OSS Director Donovan asks Secretary of State Hull to expedite request for permission for two OSS agents to travel in secret via India to Tibet and thence to China to meet U.S. Army commander Stilwell. [FR, 624]

JUL 3 Secretary Hull sends Roosevelt a draft letter for OSS agents Ilya Tolstoi and Brooke Dolan II to carry to Dalai Lama (addressed as religious leader of Tibet so as not to offend Nationalist China), a letter which proclaims great interest by America in Tibet and her people, but basically asking Tibet for permission to enter and cross its territory. [FR, 625-626]

JUL 3 Secretary Hull wires Ambassador to China Gauss that Britain is not able to pressure India to obtain Tibetan permission to transport war materials to China. Britain is urging China to make a public pledge of Tibetan autonomy prior to threatening economic sanctions against Tibet. British refer to Tibetan independence as well as autonomy. Hull notes U.S. has not questioned Chinese claims of 'suzerainty' over Tibet. U.S. begins policy of non-committal public attitude on Tibetan questions. [FR, 626]

JUL 4 Flying Tigers officially incorporated into U.S. Army Air Forces, though many later join Civil Air Transport. [SS, 101]

JUL 13 Gauss reports to Hull that Tibetans have agreed to passage of non-military supplies for China, that China has no plans for road to Tibet or stationing of troops due to certain Tibetan opposition. China makes no pledge regarding autonomy however. [FR, 627]

JUL 30 Gauss receives a report in Chungking that Chinese government heard arguments from finance minister Kung supporting Tibet as a "self-governing dominion" presumably within Nationalist China. [FR, 628-629]

AUG 27 British Embassy reports to State Dept. that China appears to want to expand into eastern Tibet more than it wants to move supplies. Even so, Britain is not pushing for autonomy declaration by China. Britain supports autonomy. Tibet has refused permission for foreign supervision in Tibet of any supply mission. [FR, 630-631]

SEP U.S. supplies Tibetan Government with equipment for three radio stations delivered by OSS agents Tolstoy and Dolan. [MG, 97, 130]

SEP 15 U.S. State Dept. reaffirms its position that Chinese claim of 'suzerainty' over Tibet has not been questioned by U.S. and thus no reply is due to Britain on its policy. [FR, 631] OCT 12 Roosevelt promises Chiang greater military deliveries over the Himalayas (the 'Hump') and future warplanes. [MS, 114]

DEC 31 Nearly 100,000 U.S. military personnel in the China-Burma-India war theater. [MS, 139]


1943 Chiang orders Governor of 'Sikang' (Chinese "province" reaching into Eastern Tibet) to move troops to Tibetan border. [FW, 60]

JAN U.S. military finds the American public believes China is greatly supporting the war effort, even though this is not true. [MS, 120]

FEB 8 President Roosevelt's representative in India wires Secretary of State insisting on joint arrangement with both Tibetan and Chinese governments over possible transit of Tibet with war materials. [FR, 621]

APR 15 Roosevelt approves U.S. Navy SACO group joint operations with Chiang's ruthless secret police. [MS, 236]

MAY 15 U.S. position on Tibet relayed to U.K. [FR, 630]

AUG 5 Letter from U.K. Secretary Eden to Chinese minister Soong regarding U.K. policy on Tibet--same as later 12/12/49 position paper--Britain will give Tibet moral support but will not intervene. [1949 FR, IX, 1091]

NOV U.S. military supply plane goes off course over the Hump and the crew survives. Tibetans help them to Lhasa. [PH, 237]

NOV 22 Cairo Conference: Roosevelt and Churchill meet Chiang and recognize China as one of the great allies. [HE, 506]

NOV 28 Teheran Conference: Roosevelt sets May 1944 for invasion of Europe, Churchill declines support for Burma, Stalin asks for privileges in Manchuria. [MS, 150] DEC 6 Presidential advisor Hopkins ridicules Chiang's desire to acquire Outer Mongolia and other territories, says U.S. would demand post-war bases in Formosa (Taiwan). [MS, 151] DEC 19 Five American air crewmen escorted out of Lhasa to India. [PH, 245]


JAN 19 Experiences of five U.S. airmen downed in Tibet. [NY]

FEB 18 10th Panchen Lama enthroned at Taer monastery. [NY]

MAR 28 Labrang monastery delegation to Chungking. [NY]

JUL 6 Roosevelt cables Chiang that Stilwell should assume command of all Chinese and American forces, including Communist armies in China. [MS, 165]

JUL 10 Vice Pres. Wallace reports to Roosevelt after two weeks in China that Chiang's corrupt government seems doomed to fall to the Communists. [MS, 163]

AUG 23 Mao tells U.S. agent in Yenan that Communists desire future cooperation with U.S. after defeat of Japan. [MS, 184]

AUG 30 OSS has begun training Communists in Yenan. [MS, 187]

SEP 6 Hurley goes to Nationalist capital Chungking as Roosevelt's representative. [MS, 166]

SEP 13 Communists tell Stilwell their willingness to put forces under his command. [MS, 168]

SEP 19 Stilwell gives Chiang Roosevelt's ultimatum to turn command of forces over to Stilwell. [MS, 169]

SEP 19 Roosevelt and Churchill decide that use of an atomic bomb against Japan is a possibility. [RP, 13]

SEP 25 Communist leader Chu Teh announces support for U.S. command of all Chinese forces. [MS, 188]

OCT 10 Hurley recommends to Roosevelt to recall Stilwell. [MS, 173]

OCT 18 Roosevelt replaces Stilwell with Wedemeyer. (Gauss resigns soon after and Hurley becomes Ambassador to China.) [MS, 174]

NOV Roosevelt elected to fourth term. []

NOV 8 Hurley and Mao sign proposal for Chinese coalition government and U.S. military aid. [MS, 196]

NOV 21 Nationalists stall Hurley proposal. [MS, 198]

NOV 22 OSS office in China proposes secret military program to aid Communists. [MS, 197]

DEC 15 U.S. Army and OSS agents propose joint U.S.-Communist commando and intelligence operations. [MS, 203]


1945 British Mission under Basil Gould helps start a school at Lhasa, but it soon closes under opposition of monasteries. [TS, 289]

JAN 9 Mao and Chou offer to come to Washington to explain position of Chinese Communists and ask for political recognition. [MS, 205]

JAN 11 Wedemeyer reduces airlift supply tonnage to SACO group having drug smuggling connections in China. [MS, 242]

JAN 14 U.S. Navy SACO group informs Hurley of secret Army-OSS contacts with Communists. [MS, 239]

JAN 30 SACO group training secret police in torture and assassination of Communists and opponents to Chiang regime. [MS, 243]

FEB 28 U.S. chargé cables Secretary of State staff assessment that Hurley is destroying chance for unity and peace in China. [MS, 212]

MAR 9 U.S. air forces firebomb Tokyo. [HE, 513]

APR 2 Hurley publicly denies Communists have asked for military aid or political recognition. [MS, 218]

APR 12 Amidst crisis in U.S.-China policy and global war, Roosevelt dies and Truman assumes Presidency. [HE, 511]

APR 25 Truman receives first detailed briefing on Manhattan Project, having learned of its existence only 13 days earlier. [RP, 13]

MAY 8 Axis powers defeated throughout Europe with 20 million Russian, 6 million Jewish, 405,000 American, 330,000 British and 270,000 French dead, among others. [HE, 513] JUN 6 FBI, following prior OSS break-in, raids New York office of journal "Amerasia" to seize supposed "secret" documents on China policy, all under approval of President Truman. [MS, 226]

JUN 24 Two U.S. soldiers return to China on Chinese government pack train. [NY]

JUN 25 United Nations Conference in San Francisco adopts Charter. Allied China is a member, but neutral Tibet is not invited. [HE, 643]

JUN 25 Mao warns U.S. not to continue support for despot Chiang. [MS, 227]

JUL 16 First atomic bomb exploded in U.S. test 'TRINITY' at Alamagordo AFB in New Mexico. [MS, 255]

JUL 24 Truman plans atomic bomb attack on Japan to forestall Russian advance into Manchuria and northern China. [MS, 257]

JUL 26 Potsdam Declaration calls for unconditional Japanese surrender. [RP]

AUG 6 Atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, by the U.S. [RP]

AUG 9 Atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, by the U.S. after Kokura, the primary target, was obscured by clouds. [RP]

AUG 10 U.S. Joint Chiefs order world's largest military air transport, moving Nationalist forces to coastal and northern China. [MS, 263]

AUG 14 Sino-Soviet Treaty pledges Russian support for Nationalists and withdrawal from Manchuria after Japanese surrender. [MS, 261]

AUG 14 Japan informs U.S. of decision to surrender. [RP]

AUG 15 Truman designates Chiang as sole authority to accept Japanese surrender in China, excluding Communists from share in victory. [MS, 264]

AUG 25 Chiang says Tibet must be allowed high degree of autonomy. [NY]

SEP 2 Formal Japanese surrender with 2.2 million Chinese, 1.5 million Japanese and 55,000 Americans dead, among others. [HE, 515]

SEP 30 U.S. marines land at Tientsin and assist Japanese forces in battles against Communists so as to hold territory for Nationalist regime. [MS, 272]

OCT 1 President Truman officially disbands the OSS, but its operatives are distributed among the many government intelligence units. [TP, 28]

OCT 22 U.S. Joint Chief's report says Chiang should put Chinese economy under U.S. control, giving U.S. access to raw materials, a military arms market, and surveillance of Sino-Soviet border regions. [MS, 279]

NOV 12 U.S. War Secretary says 53,000 marines will keep fighting in China to support Nationalists. White House press release says U.S. policy is to not interfere in Chinese internal affairs. [MS, 274]

NOV 27 Hurley resigns, causing political scandal in U.S. over China policy. U.S. continues massive arms transfer to Nationalists. [MS, 288]


1946 Chennault forms Civil Air Transport with money from Nationalists, flying C-46 and C-47 transports. [SS, 147]

JAN Heinrich Harrer (see his: Seven Years in Tibet) and Peter Aufschnaiter reach Lhasa after escaping Allied prisoner-of-war camp in India. [MG, 114]

JAN 5 Dalai Lama writes letter to President Truman promoting good relations between the two countries. (Translation delivered February 7, 1947) [1947 FR, VII, 592]

JAN 7 Regent and Tibetan Cabinet write similar letters to Truman. [1947 FR, VII, 592]

JUL 29 General Marshall embargoes arms shipments to China and reduces U.S. forces from 100,000 troops to 6,000. [MS, 298]

JUL 11 Truman names Dr. J. Leighton Stuart as U.S. Ambassador to replace Hurley. [CQ1, 81]

AUG National Geographic article tells of Tolstoy and Dolan's trip across Tibet from India to China, followed by Cutting's rare photographs. [NG, 169-222]

AUG 11 Tibet's role in British empire's defense strategy. [NY]

OCT 1 U.S. policy statement on China says U.S. and China both regard Tibet as an integral part of China. [1947 FR, VII, 600]

NOV 19 Afghanistan joins U.N. [UN]

DEC U.S. State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee creates guidelines for covert action operations. [TP, 30]

DEC 3 Top secret policy on status of Tibet questioned as U.S. chargé in India wires Secretary of State on the desirability of continuing the U.S. "non-committal" attitude. [1947 FR, VII, 588]

DEC 16 Thailand joins U.N. [UN]


1947 Tibet sends mission to Nanking to negotiate settlement of border and get recognition of independence, but without success. [LT, 75]

JAN 13 U.S. chargé in India reports to Secretary of State on desire of Tibetans for stronger relations with the United States and reasons why U.S. should send favorable Presidential reply to Lhasa. Included are factors emphasizing Tibet's great strategic, military and ideological importance. [FR, VII, 588-592]

MAR Truman Doctrine enunciated: the U.S. will support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. [HE, 585]

MAR 23 Delhi conference of all Asian countries includes Tibet as a fully sovereign nation. [TS, 291]

APR 14 Acting Sec. of State Dean Acheson wires U.S. chargé in India: the U.S. War Dept. does not consider Tibet to be a useful base of military operations, the State Dept. recommends only unofficial U.S. diplomatic visits to Tibet, and in light of Sino-American relations it would not be useful to raise the question of the status of Tibet. [FR, VII, 594]

APR 15 Ex-Regent Reting Rinpoche arrested. [MG, 139]

MAY Conspirators punished after trial by Tsongdu. [MG, 139]

MAY 8 Regent Reting dies. [TS, 293]

JUN-JUL Nyungne Lama commits suicide following aborted coup. Reting reportedly arrested. Je College of Sera Monastery revolts with 200 monks killed by government troops. Reting dies in prison. [MP]

JUN 11 Tibetan Foreign Office writes U.S. chargé in India on upcoming trade mission to the U.S. led by Finance Minister Shakabpa. [FR, VII, 596]

JUN 13 Coup attempt reported in Lhasa. [NY]

JUN 14 Shakabpa letter to U.S. Ambassador in India on trade mission. [FR, VII, 596]

JUL 13 Former pro-Chinese Regent Jecheng (?) reported executed in coup attempt. [NY]

JUL 26 Central Intelligence Agency created with passage of the National Security Act. [TP, 31]

JUL 30 U.S. response to Tibetan Foreign "Bureau" on trade delegation makes distinction between Chinese and Tibetan governments. The response to Shakabpa implies State Dept. assistance with his visit to Washington. [FR, VII, 597]

AUG 1 U.S. Ambassador in India wires Sec. of State on the political background to the Tibetan Trade Mission's upcoming visit to Washington, following a non-committal policy so as not to offend Chinese claims of sovereignty. [FR, VII, 596]

AUG 15 Upon Indian independence, British Mission to Lhasa closes. Reginald Fox is hired by Tibetan Government as a radio monitor and trainer. (Call sign AC4YN-Lhasa)

Mission head Hugh Richardson stays on as head of Indian Mission. [MG, 120]

AUG 15 India and Pakistan achieve independence. [DW, 213]

AUG 21 U.S. Ambassador in India wires Sec. of State questioning War Dept. view on Tibet's importance and asking if U.S. policy that Tibet is part of China has changed. [FR, VII, 598]

AUG 26 U.S. Embassy in London reports British decide not to support Tibet as they withdraw from India. [FR]

SEP 30 Pakistan joins U.N. [UN]

OCT 4 Yale University to give course on Tibetan culture. [NY]

OCT 6 Jacques Marchais Tibetan Center opened in New York City. [NY]

OCT 25 Tibet sends trade delegations to India, China, France, Italy, Britain, and the U.S. under Tibetan Government passports. [TS, 294]

OCT 28 State Dept. wires answer to U.S. Ambassador in India: as U.S. does not question Chinese claim to sovereignty over Tibet, the trade delegation should be referred to the Commerce Dept.

NOV 21 U.S. Ambassador in India forwards State Dept. information on the trade delegation provided by Indian representative to Sikkim Hopkinson that mission is prompted by Rimshi Pangda Tsang; trade delegation travelling on Tibetan travel documents and visiting China ahead of U.S. and U.K. [FR, VII, 602]

DEC 17 U.S. Foreign Aid Act support to Nationalist China. []

DEC 19 First meeting of the National Security Council adopts NSC 4/A, directing the CIA to secretly prevent Communist election victory. [TP, 31]

DEC 22 U.S. chargé in India wires Sec. of State that China wants trade delegation to travel on Chinese passports. [FR, VII, 604]

DEC 22 CIA's Special Procedures Group established to carry out covert actions. [TP, 31]

DEC 26 Acting Sec. of State Lovett replies to chargé in India that he should not pressure Tibetans to be subordinate to China nor make mission an issue between U.S. and China. [FR, VII, 604]

DEC 30 Chargé in India wires Sec. of State: Trade delegation wants to buy gold and silver as backing for Tibetan currency, but it may not be able to obtain enough dollars in India. Includes report of meeting with trade delegation at U.S. Embassy. Question of whether request from Lhasa Government falls under Gold Reserve Act of 1934. [FR, VII, 606]


1948 Harrer begins working for Tibetan Government. [MG, 114]

JAN 4 Union of Burma celebrates independence. [FW, 79]

JAN 31 Tibetan trade delegation arriving in Nanking learns of the assassination of Mohandas Gandhi. [TS, ]

APR China Aid Act grants Chiang $125 million as Communists take military initiative in civil war. [MS, 301]

APR 19 Burma joins U.N. [UN]

JUN 18 NSC 10/2 creates new covert action group called the Office of Policy Coordination to, among other things, assist indigenous anti-Communist elements in "threatened" countries. [TP, 33]

JUL 6 Nationalist Mongolian-Tibetan Affairs Commission asks Foreign Office to discontinue Britain's special rights in Tibet. [NY]

AUG-SEP Tibetan trade delegation meets with Sec. of State Marshall and through influence of Ilya Tolstoi meets Gen. Eisenhower, then President of Columbia University. [TS, 296]

AUG-SEP Trade delegation meets with (candidate for?) Vice President. [D3, 61]

AUG 9 U.S. Ambassador to India reports that India may not push for Tibetan autonomy as the British had done. [FR]

AUG 9 Thousands of nomads attack Chamdo and Chaya in uprising against Regent Yung Tseng-daja (?), who considers resigning to avert civil war. [NY]

AUG 12 Tibetan trade delegation visits New York City explaining that Tibet has its own government not under Chinese authority. [NY]

SEP 21 Political split between Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama described. [NY]

OCT 3 House report on China recommends U.S. give Nationalists a guarantee of territorial and political integrity. [CQ1, 84]

NOV 2 Truman elected President. [HE, 599]

DEC 9 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide approved by the U.N. General Assembly. [HE, 646]

DEC 10 Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by U.N. General Assembly. [HE, 645-646]

DEC 16 Acting Secretary of State Lovett says U.S. will definitely not get involved in Chinese civil war. [CQ1, 85]

DEC 22 U.S. Ambassador to India wires Sec. of State that India feels a communist China would be more Asiatic and anti-Western and thus more cooperative with India than Nationalist China. [FR]


JAN 5 U.S. Ambassador to India informs Tibetan trade delegation that the U.S. recognizes Chinese 'suzerainty' over Tibet. [FR, IX, 1065]

JAN 8 U.S. Embassy in New Delhi has urged for some time that the U.S. review its Tibet policy. The Embassy now proposes that a Communist victory in China should prompt U.S. recognition of Tibet as an independent country. [FR, IX, 1065]

FEB 17 U.S. Ambassador to India tells State Dept. that India is balking at providing Tibet dollar exchange to purchase gold from the U.S. [FR, IX, 1064]

MAR 24 Joint Chiefs memo says U.S. strategic interest in South Asia is negligible except for Pakistan's key role as a staging area for attacks on the U.S.S.R. or capture and defense of Middle East oilfields. [FR]

APR 12 Internal State Dept. memo: history of U.S.-Tibet relations; 'suzerainty' actually amounts to current Tibetan autonomy more than it does Chinese control or sovereignty over a vassal state; U.S. should refer in future instead to Chinese de jure authority over Tibet; Communist takeover in China would favor U.S. recognition of independent Tibet unless the Chinese Nationalist government survives; U.N. membership for Tibet depends upon Soviet actions, the practicality of U.S. support for Tibet and how long China will be disunited. [FR, IX, 1065-71]

APR 12 U.S. Embassy in India urges U.S. contacts with the Tibetan Government if for no other reason than to contain Communism. [FR, IX, 1071]

MAY 3 Secretary Acheson refers to de facto Tibet Government purchase of gold from U.S. in wire to Embassy in India. [FR, 1073]

MAY 3 Chennault urges U.S. to defend southern China. [CQ1, 86]

MAY 21 U.S. Embassy in India reports to State Dept. doubts that India would use force in opposing a Chinese invasion of Tibet. India has advised the U.K. not to make a Lhasa visit in the summer. [FR, IX, 1073]

JUN 4 U.S. chargé in Moscow fully supports U.S. contacts with Tibet Government. [FR, IX, 1075]

JUL 2 U.S. Embassy in India now more urgently proposes a U.S. mission to Lhasa since the Nationalist Chinese government is non-functioning. India has a monopoly over speedy communications and international relations between Tibet and the outside world. [FR, IX, 1076]

JUL 2 Secretary of State reports to U.S. Embassy in India that U.S. gold sales to Tibet do not constitute official recognition of Tibet as a sovereign country, but that the U.S. is now reviewing its Tibet policy. [FR, IX, 1077]

JUL 8 U.S. Ambassador to China seconds the idea of a U.S. mission to Lhasa especially now that U.S. recognition of Tibetan independence could be made prior to a Communist victory or before relations are established with a Communist China. [FR, IX, 1078] JUL 23 Chinese government representatives are expelled from Lhasa by the Tibetan Government. [NY]

JUL 24 India sends envoy to Lhasa to report on expulsion of Chinese representatives. [NY] JUL 25 Ambassador Lo Chia Neun reports the expulsions were due to fears that the Chinese representatives were Communists. [NY]

JUL 28 Secretary of State asks U.S. Embassy in India to consider covert missions to Lhasa. [FR, IX, 1078]

JUL 30 U.S. Embassy in India reports Nationalist Chinese mission in Lhasa expelled, leaving India as the only nation with an official presence in Tibet. [FR, IX, 1079]

AUG Nationalist China "recognizes" the Sining candidate as the Seventh Panchen Lama in a manner contrary to Tibetan tradition. [MG, 185]

AUG? Lowell Thomas, Sr. and Jr. visit Tibet and are in Lhasa for a little more than a week. [TS, 298]

AUG 5 U.S. Embassy in India opposes a covert U.S. mission to Lhasa and again reports concern over India's monopoly on Tibet's world relations. [FR, ]

AUG 5 White paper on U.S. China policy issued secretly by U.S. State Department. [CQ1, 87]

AUG 7 Chinese Nationalist Acting President Li appeals to Tibet to restore representatives in Lhasa. [NY]

AUG 8 India-Bhutan border treaty. [FW, 72]

AUG 11 Dalai Lama calls for religious rites and prayers to help stem Chinese Communist advances on Tibet. [NY]

AUG 12 Panchen Lama seeking end of 25-year exile from Tibet. [NY]

AUG 12 Adoption of Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Article 382 prohibits occupying powers from transferring parts of their own civilian population into occupied territories. []

AUG 29 First atomic test by the U.S.S.R. [RP, 53]

SEP U.S. consulate in Sinkiang closes. MacKiernan and Bessac plan trek to India via Tibet. [1950 FR, VI, 358]

SEP 3 Chinese Communists vow to 'liberate' Tibet. [NY]

SEP 3 U.S. detects radioactivity over Pacific from U.S.S.R. atomic test. [RP, 53]

SEP 5 CIA begins covert programs to air-drop agents into Communist countries. [TP, 42-43]

SEP 21 Panchen Lama seeks Chinese troop escort to Tibet. [NY]

SEP 29 Chinese Communists declare previous KMT (Nationalist) international treaties will be reconsidered, opening the door to future territorial expansion. [FW, 24]

OCT 1 People's Republic of China declared by Communists after Nationalists retreat to Taiwan and Burma. [MS, 303]

OCT 11 Lowell Thomas, Sr. interview with Dalai Lama, who fears that the Tibetan Government will be overthrown if Communists invade. [NY]

OCT 12 Secretary of State lists conditions for U.S. recognition of the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 87]

OCT 13 Nehru meets with President Truman and Secretary Acheson in Washington and says foreign-dominated communism is alien to the Chinese mind and that China is preoccupied with an agrarian revolution. [FR]

OCT 17 Lowell Thomas brings messages from Dalai Lama and Regent to Truman and Acheson asking for U.S. aid against a Chinese Communist invasion. [NY]

OCT 25 U.S. considering official recognition of Tibet. [NY]

NOV 2 Tibetan Government reasserts its independence and asks Mao for assurances that PLA troops won't cross border. Tibet asks for negotiations on Tibetan territories previously annexed by China. [FR, IX, 1081]

NOV 16 Indian Prime Minister Nehru publicly claims Chinese 'suzerainty' over Tibet. [FR, IX, 1082]

NOV 21 U.S. Embassy in India reports contents of Tibet Foreign Office letter to U.S. Secretary of State dated 11/4/49: PLA units have invaded Lanchow, Chinghai and Sinkiang, and infiltrate Amdo; Mao adopts aggressive attitude; Tibet requests U.S., U.K. and Indian aid; Indian government has decided to abandon Tibet except to supply small arms. [FR, IX, 1080-82]

NOV 22 U.S. chargé in India wires State Dept. that although U.K. policy is not finalized, U.K. is distressed that India is not upholding former British policy on Tibet. [FR, IX, 1083]

NOV 23 U.S. chargé in India wires State Dept. to report on U.K. policy: Tibet invasion not imminent, but Tibet should not provoke China by asserting its independence; Tibetans should be given weapons and encouraged to resist short of leaving the impression that major powers will assist militarily; U.K. worried about the fate of Nepal. [FR, IX, 1084]

NOV 25 Chinese Communists urge Tibetans to revolt, claim the Panchen Lama has asked PLA troops to 'liberate' Tibet. [NY]

NOV 28 Indian External Affairs minister publicly denies Tibet has asked for assistance from India. [FR, IX, 1087]

NOV 28 U.K. reports to State Dept. that Tibet was told of a sympathetic consideration for its U.N. plea and U.K. wants to know the U.S. position. [FR, IX, 1085]

DEC 1 U.S. Ambassador in India wires State Dept. to report that U.K. advising India on policy of passive restraint. U.S. surprised at India's public announcement that Tibet has not asked for assistance. [FR, IX, 1087]

DEC 2 U.S.S.R. claims U.K. and U.S. want Tibet as a military base against China and calls Thomas visit interference. [NY]

DEC 2 U.S. Ambassador in India wires State Dept. that India claims not to have received a plea from Tibet, but that India says she can do little other than warn Nepal. [FR, IX, 1087]

DEC 3 Tibetan Cabinet wires U.S. State Dept.: Tibet is independent and opposes Communism; Tibet wants U.N. membership, most strongly asking for U.S. good offices. [FR, IX, 1087]

DEC 7 Secretary of State Acheson wires U.S. Ambassador in India on latest Tibetan plea for U.N. membership, asking for Ambassador to obtain the British position. [FR, IX, 1089]

DEC 8 U.S. Ambassador in India reports to State Dept.: India tending to forsake Nepal also; U.K. plan for a Lhasa mission has been scrapped; the Embassy now suggests no U.S. mission to Lhasa. [FR, IX, 1089]

DEC 8 U.K. wires India the opinion that U.S.S.R. would veto a Tibetan application to U.N., suggesting Tibetans meet a U.K.-India team somewhere in India. [FR, IX, 1090]

DEC 9 Acheson wires U.S. Ambassador in India to inform Tibetans that their request is being carefully considered, but tells the Ambassador that a U.S. mission to Lhasa is off. [FR, IX, 1090]

DEC 12 U.K. official policy paper on Tibet places brunt on India but discourages Indian military assistance to Tibet. U.K. may supply some arms but policy is to do nothing other than publicly support Tibetan 'autonomy'. [FR, IX, 1091]

DEC 14 S.J.J.Singh says China infiltrating Tibet in prelude to revolution. [NY]

DEC 14 U.S. Ambassador in India advises State Dept. to adopt U.K. policy: stop a Tibetan mission to the U.S. and stall on informing Tibet of a clear rejection of its U.N. appeal. [FR, IX, 1091]

DEC 15 U.S. Ambassador in India repeats advice to State Dept. that U.S. put off Lhasa visit and not provoke U.S.S.R. by seeming to aid Tibet. [FR, IX, 1092]

DEC 16 U.S. Ambassador in India tells State Dept.: Indian agent in Lhasa, Richardson, expects Chinese invasion next summer; 20,000 troops would be enough to defeat Tibetans; India had its agent in Lhasa, Dayal, argue against Tibetan letter of independence to Mao, but Tibet has now asked India for help in raising a Tibetan army of 100,000; Richardson thinks 50,000 is possible; Tibet may invoke Treaty of 1856 for protection by Nepal. [FR, IX, 1093-95]

DEC 22 Tibet wires U.S. President and Secretary of State: crisis has been reached and a special mission is being sent to the U.S. consisting of Lachag Khenchung Thubten Sanghe and Rimshi Dingja. [FR]

DEC 30 India recognizes the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 88]

DEC 30 Truman approves NSC 48/2 policy commitment on Asia, reducing defense of Taiwan. [JS, 35]

DEC 30 U.S. Ambassador in India wires State Dept.: India's policy is to not ask China at all about Tibetan 'autonomy'; India has supplied Tibet with a negligible amount of arms; no decision reached on Tibet's U.N. plea. [FR, IX, 1097]

DEC 30 India recognizes the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 88]


1950 NSC 68 commits the U.S. to a massive military build-up. [JS, 40]

JAN Truman announces the U.S. will not defend Taiwan. [JS, 35]

JAN 1 Radio Peking announces PLA goal to 'liberate' Tibet. [JA, 26]

JAN 5 U.S.S.R. press hints U.S.S.R. will back China's claim to Tibet. [NY]

JAN 6 U.K. recognizes the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 88]

JAN 8 Radio Peking calls for early invasion to 'liberate' Tibet. [NY]

JAN 10 U.S. Ambassador in India makes secret report to State Dept.: India has no intention to raise the Tibet issue with China and will not answer Tibet's request for two officers to train Tibetan troops other than a detachment at Gyantse; India disfavors Tibet's U.N. admission and says Tibet had not even asked India for help in this regard. [FR, VI, 272]

JAN 11 State Dept. wires U.S. Ambassador in India a reply asking for final recommendation on a proposed U.S. Lhasa trip and its pleasure that India wants to maintain a diplomatic 'status quo'. [FR, VI, 273]

JAN 12 Radio Peking reiterates Communist plans for Tibet. [NY]

JAN 12 Secretary of State Acheson delivers a major speech before National Press Club on U.S.-Asia policy. Acheson defines U.S. primary goal as an undivided China. [JS, 35]

JAN 12 Acheson sends a secret wire to U.S. Embassy in India: stop Tibetan Government mission to U.S., with U.K. and Indian assistance, if necessary; Acheson suggests a Tibetan visit might upset the Chinese. [FR, VI, 275]

JAN 14 U.S. recalls all consular officials from China after China seizes the U.S. consulate in Peking. [CQ1, 89]

JAN 20 U.S. Joint Chiefs recommend study of covert actions in Tibet. [FR, VI, 7]

JAN 20 U.S. Ambassador in India replies to Acheson in secret cables: India is vague on the U.S. meeting with Tibetans in India as an alternative to a U.S. visit, Nehru thinks U.S. mission to Lhasa would hasten Chinese invasion. [FR, VI, 283, 285]

JAN 22 Communist China demands Tibetans send representatives to Peking to settle status of Tibet and that Tibetan Government curtail 'unlawful' missions abroad. [NY]

JAN 23 Chinese designs on Tibet confirmed by Chu Teh. [NY]

JAN 24 Moscow reportedly spurring China to invade Tibet. [NY]

JAN 25 NYT editorial on Tibet. [NY]

JAN 28 U.S.S.R. press reports 'liberation' of Tibet is imminent and U.S.-U.K. inspired coup attempt failed in Lhasa in summer of 1949 and that Sikh princes plot to use 'border province' as a base against Tibet. [NY]

JAN 29 U.S.S.R. demands concessions from China on minorities policies at Moscow summit. [NY]

JAN 31 Chinese communists again demand Tibetan Government send representatives to 'negotiate' in Peking, promise regional 'autonomy' and urge Tibetan Government to cancel 'foreign relations overtures' to Western nations. [NY]

JAN 31 President Truman authorizes production of nuclear fusion (hydrogen) bombs by the U.S. [RP, 56]

JAN 31 India-Nepal border treaty. [FW, 70]

JAN 31 Tibet radio appeals for aid against Communist invasion. [CQ1, 89]

FEB 1 Dalai Lama asks for foreign aid and radio transmitters to prevent Communist invasion. Tibet hopes to make regular broadcasts in three languages to keep world informed. [NY]

FEB 3 Lhasa Government makes request from U.S. for high-powered radio transmitter. [FR, VI, 362]

FEB 7 Prime Minister Nehru says India sees Tibet as 'autonomous' under nominal 'suzerainty' of China, but says Tibetans should decide their own future. [NY]

FEB 14 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance sets stage for nuclear cooperation and China gives up its claim to (Outer) Mongolia. [FW, 24]

FEB 16 India backs status quo in Tibet and will support policy by diplomacy alone. [NY] FEB 23 Regent and Dalai Lama ask Indian President Prasad for stronger Tibet-India ties. [NY]

MAR 1 Sec. of State sends secret wire to U.S. Embassy in India that State Dept. wants India to provide Tibet defense assistance and U.S. desires information on Tibetan plans to resist and its military needs. [FR, VI, 314]

MAR 8 U.S. Ambassador in India wires top secret response listing level of Indian arms to Tibet. U.K. and U.S. both think Tibet needs military training for arms supply to be of any real use in opposing a full Chinese invasion. [FR, VI, 317]

MAR 9 Tibetan Government recalls representatives sent abroad to assert national independence from Peking and urges former military commander Dzasa Yuthok to return from India. Austrian merchant Harrer named commander of E. Tibet frontier forces. Wealthy Tibetans preparing to leave Tibet. Religious institutions trying to save rare texts in Bhutan and Sikkim. [NY]

MAR 12 900 Chinese troops occupy Kakhajar near Tibet frontier, political situation in Tibet deteriorating. [NY]

APR 12 U.S. Ambassador to India wires Sec. of State that India is convinced the U.S. supports Pakistan in dispute over Kashmir for U.S. strategic reasons. [FR]

APR 19 Sec. of State Acheson seeks to covertly strengthen Tibetan military, but U.S. relies on covert Indian aid to Tibet supplied by U.K. [FR, VI, 330]

APR 20 Tibet Government seeks better relations with China and top level talks. [NY]

APR 24 U.S. Ambassador in India wires Sec. of State that Tibetans chagrined at U.S. and other refusals of aid, and Shakabpa may begin negotiations for autonomy agreement with China. [FR, VI, 331]

APR 26 Soviet military jets supplied to China. [LL, 7] APR 29 Vice Consul MacKiernan shot and killed by a Tibetan border patrol, Bessac continues on to Lhasa. [FR, VI, 358]

MAY 10 After Radio Peking announces regional autonomy and religious freedom for Tibet if Tibet would agree to peaceful liberation' PLA units take Denko across the Yangtze, recaptured two weeks later by 600 Tibetan troops led by Muja Dapon with 600 Chinese dead. [MP, 19-27]

MAY 10 Robert Ford in Chamdo receives radio signal from Tibetan radio operators in Denko on the Upper Yangtse that Chinese forces have invaded. Governor Lalhu decides to defend Chamdo at any cost. [MP, 19]

MAY 13 Tibetan delegation to meet with Chinese representatives in Hong Kong. [NY]

MAY 16 India denies Radio Moscow report that India grants U.S. permission to transit India with arms for Tibet. Tibetans seeking autonomy in exchange for pledge not to make ties to the West. China unlikely to invade Tibet until summer. [NY]

MAY 23 Radio Peking urges Dalai Lama to accept allegiance to Communist government and pledges autonomy for Tibet. Chinese SW troops ready to invade Tibet. Dalai Lama's brother confers with Chiang Kai-shek on Taiwan on the future of Tibet. [NY]

MAY 23 8-member delegation from Lhasa to go to Hong Kong for negotiations with Chinese Communists. [NY]

JUN Pomdatsang brothers offer private Kham armies to both sides, China wins their support from base at Dartsedo. [JA, 29]

JUN 3 State Department agrees with Tibetan Government request that no U.S. officials enter Tibet to meet Bessac's party from Sinkiang so as not to compromise Tibetan negotiations with China. [FR, VI, 358]

JUN 5 U.S. embassy at Delhi confirms that China has invaded eastern Tibet and captured several villages and a mobile radio unit. [FR, VI, 362]

JUN 6 Two members of Tibetan delegation denied permit to fly to Hong Kong from India purportedly due to visa problems. [NY]

JUN 7 Three members of delegation arrive in New Delhi to meet with India Foreign Office and U.K. High Commissioner. [NY]

JUN 8 Three members visas held up by U.K. [NY]

JUN 9 Tibetan delegation makes unofficial visit to U.S. embassy in Delhi and admits Tibet made efforts for closer ties to the U.S. too late. [FR, VI, 360]

JUN 11 Bessac arrives in Lhasa. [FR, VI, 358]

JUN 14 State Dept. has no objections to selling napalm bombs to Chinese Government. [FR, VI, 363]

JUN 15 Three members say they will assert Tibetan independence at meeting with China, but U.K. claims discussions will lead to Communist rule and cancels visas to Hong Kong. [NY]

JUN 16 Shakabpa asks U.S. Embassy in Delhi whether U.S. will help Tibet in the event of a Chinese invasion. State Dept. believes small amount of covert assistance to Tibet could forestall Chinese invasion especially if U.S. and its allies were cool on changing Tibet's international status. U.K. representative pessimistic that U.K. could pressure India regarding aid to Tibet. [FR, VI, 364, 424]

JUN 20 U.K. links recognition of Chinese sovereignty over Tibet to autonomy for Tibet, but is unwilling to confront China. U.K. believes Tibetans will only nominally resist. [FR, VI, 365] JUN 25 U.S. Army-State Dept. conference on U.S. intervention in Korea under U.N. aegis. [JS, 35]

JUN 25 North Korean forces cross 38th parallel, U.N. calls for troops in Korea. [CQ1, 90] JUN 27 Truman approves air and ground attack on N. Korea. [CQ1, 90] JUL 11 U.S. intere

sted in approaching Tibetan mission in India with promise of secret U.S. aid. [FR, VI, 376]

JUL 14 Taiwan representatives say 20,000 Chinese troops have moved into Tibet. [NY]

JUL 15 U.S. Embassy in Delhi doubts Korean conflict will spur India to assist Tibet and that India would oppose U.S. aid to Tibet. Ambassador suggests telling Tibetans that U.S. now willing to provide aid in principle and asking for particulars. [FR, VI, 376]

JUL 21 Report from China discounts moves against Tibet. [NY]

JUL 22 Sec. of State Acheson commits U.S. to secret aid to Tibetans, without the knowledge of India and with assurance that U.K. will not inform India. [FR, VI, 386]

JUL 23 China will absorb Tibet by political, economic and military means. [NY]

JUL 29 Tibetans in India say one American killed and one wounded in frontier guard error at Nakstang. Believed to be vice-consul from Urmchi missing since September 1949, D. MacKiernan and party. [NY]

JUL 30 Armed Tibetans fighting PLA troops. Lhasa asks that Peking authorize Chinese Ambassador to India to discuss Tibet status. Tibet to seek status as buffer state. G.S. Gyamtso said to be vice president of a Chinese 'provisional government' in Tibet. U.S. State Dept. confirms MacKieran was killed April 3rd. [NY]

AUG Tibetan Cabinet sends minister Ngabo Ngawang Jigme to assume Governor-Generalship at Chamdo. [JA, 30]

AUG 1 Chinese Gen. Liu Po-cheng describes preparations for 'liberation' of Tibet. Shak Do Ton urges Chinese invasion. [NY]

AUG 4 U.S. tells Shakabpa in Delhi that U.S. will provide Tibet financial and military aid, but Tibet must first ask India for more aid and if refused ask for cooperation with delivery of secret aid from U.S. Tibet says it can provide landing fields at Lhasa, Gartok and Chamdo, but U.S. response is cool to suggestions of flights from Burma or Pakistan if India uncooperative. Shakabpa says Tibet refuses Chinese suzereignty and is playing for time and welcomed U.K. refusal of visas to Hong Kong. Ambassador reports to Acheson that U.K. willing to replace Indian military stocks so that India can continue to provide aid to Tibet. [FR, VI, 424]

AUG 5 CIA clandestine air forces in Asia begin flights over China to support Nationalist sabotage and guerilla operations. [SS, 149]

AUG 6 Earthquake rocks SE Tibet and Assam, the 2nd largest ever recorded in the 20th century. Tibetans consider this an ill omen. [MP, 31]

AUG 6 Gen. Liu Po-cheng promises regional rule, religious freedom and social reform to Tibetans. [NY]

AUG 9 PLA troops march towards Tibet border. [NY]

AUG 10 India Government denies Chinese troop movements and recognize Chinese claim to Tibet. [NY]

AUG 13 800,000 PLA troops ready for invasion of Tibet, 'liberation' propaganda noted. [NY]

AUG 14 U.S. Ambassador in India wires State Dept. that India has been told U.S. willing to aid Tibetan Government if Tibet first asks India. India has secretly urged China not to invade Tibet. [FR, VI, 440]

AUG 15 Tibetan art exhibit opens in New York City. [NY]

AUG 16 India High Commissioner Menon says in London that India is trying to moderate Chinese actions against Tibet. [NY]

AUG 18 U.S. Embassy at Delhi informs Tibetan delegation in Calcutta that U.S. has told India of conditions for U.S. aid to Tibet via India. [FR, VI, 440]

AUG 19 India Government disavows Menon's remarks reported 16 August. Tibetans in Calcutta disagree. [NY]

AUG 20 China using political and religious strife to undermine Tibet. [NY]

AUG 21 Bessac crosses Tibetan frontier into India. [FR, VI, 358

AUG 22 Tibet negotiating with China in India. [NY]

AUG 23 China will invade Tibet from Sinkiang. [NY]

AUG 25 China replies to India that it must maintain sovereignty over Tibet and did not wish for armed conflict. China has instructed its India ambassador to begin talks with Tibetans at Delhi, with final negotiations in Peking. [FR, VI, 449]

AUG 25 Nehru says India wants peaceful settlement in China-Tibet talks. [NY]

AUG 27 W. Churchill sees Chinese invasion of Tibet as imminent. [NY]

AUG 28 Secret U.S. policy statement on Nepal: Permanent post in Kathmandu would provide U.S. a regular channel of information on Tibet, with whom Nepal has active foreign relations. Tibet still paying Nepal an annual tribute stemming from Nepal's 1854 invasion of Tibet. [FR]

AUG 31 Peking informs India it wants settlement in New Delhi talks. [NY]

SEP 1 China to confer with Tibet thru its Indian Embassy. [NY]

SEP 6 Tibetans to confer with Nehru prior to meeting with Chinese Ambassador Yuan. [NY]

SEP 9 Tibetan delegation meets with U.S. ambassador in India. Shakabpa says Tibetan Government has decided to forcefully resist Chinese incursion and is grateful for offer of U.S. military aid. Tibetans confirm concentrations of Chinese troops along border at Jyekundo, Nagchen, Degegonchen and Batang, and say weather conditions during the next five months would not prevent military operations. Tibetan Government disappointed with British attitude on Chinese suzereignty and hopes for full independence or status quo to be maintained. [FR, VI, 493]

SEP 12 Nepalese concern reported at Tibet situation. [NY]

SEP 15 Acting Sec. of State Webb sends top secret wire to U.S. Embassy in India that Tibetans have been informed of U.S. willingness to provide military assistance. U.S. also willing to supply radio transmitter, but U.S. believes direct coded radio communications between Lhasa and Washington impractical. Tibetans should continue to communicate with U.S. via Delhi embassy and Calcutta consulate. [FR, VI, 503]

SEP 15 U.S. forces land at Inchon, Korea, as U.N. forces begin major offensive. [CQ1, 92]

SEP 25 PLA troops combat Tibetans in Kham. [NY]

SEP 28 Indonesia joins U.N. [UN]

OCT 1 Dalai Lama's sister carries message from Lhasa to negotiators in New Delhi. [NY]

OCT 2 Chinese Government calls for 'liberation' of Tibet by arms. [NY]

OCT 3 China wants Tibet pact signed in Peking. [NY]

OCT 7 84,000 PLA troops of 1st and 2d Field Armies under Gen. Liu Bating cross Yangtse and in six-prong attack hit border towns from Tsakhalo to Denko. China captures Khatang Dapon HQ at Rangsum and ferry post at Kamthog Druka. Tsakhalo holds but is cut off. Large town of Markham falls and Prince of Derge surrenders. Denko holds and Muja Dapon pushes Chinese back over the Yangtse but, outflanked to the north, retreats to protect Riwoche. Jyekundo occupied. [JA, 30]

OCT 7 Ngabo wires news of invasion to Lhasa. Riwoche surrenders. Ngabo panics and asks Lhasa for permission to surrender, which the Tibetan Government refuses. [JA, 31]

OCT 7 Khampas and Tibetan army in fierce resistance suffer 4,000 casualties. [MG, 154]

OCT 7 U.S. troops cross 38th parallel in Korea. [CQ1, 92]

OCT 7 China says PLA troops have liberated Sinkiang and entered northern Tibet. [NY]

OCT 8 U.N. backs MacArthur plans for crossing 38th parallel towards the total occupation of Korea. Chinese embassy in India denies invasion of Tibet. Tibetan delegation says they have no information. [NY]

OCT 9 MacArthur gives North Korea ultimatum to surrender or face invasion. [NY]

OCT 12 India press says PLA troops are 50 miles into Kham. [NY]

OCT 13 U.S. ambassador in India says India cannot confirm reports of Chinese invasion of Tibet. U.S. irritated that India has supported Chinese U.N. membership and conveyed Chinese intention to intervene in Korea. [FR, VI, 531]

OCT 16 Chinese deny entering Tibet. Panchen Lama followers said to be in influx. [NY]

OCT 17 Ngabo flees after ordering vital ammunition dump destroyed. Betrayed, the Khampas rampage. [JA, 32]

OCT 18 Ngabo orders 500 of Muja Dapon's troops along with 1,500 of his own to surrender to 100 PLA artillery soldiers. [JA, 32]

OCT 20 Tibetan forces under Ngabo surrender. [MG, 160]

OCT 20 U.N. forces capture Pyongyang, North Korea. [CQ1, 92]

OCT 22 PLA forces control Lho Dzong at Salween River. [LT, 90]

OCT 25 Tibetan delegation suddenly leaves Delhi for Peking under instructions by Lhasa Government. [FR, VI, 540]

OCT 25 Peking Radio announces PLA troop movements into Tibet are to stop 'imperialist oppression'. Tibetan delegation to go to Peking conference. China-Tibet relations since 1914 are reviewed. India concerned over talks. [NY]

OCT 26 U.S. ambassador in India believes Tibetans have failed to discuss military aid from U.S. due to negative attitude of Indian Government. [FR, VI, 540]

OCT 26 U.S. doubts invasion of Tibet, citing weather, even as China reports news of its military advances. Tibetan mission leader calls reports 'propaganda'. [NY]

OCT 26 South Korean troops first encounter Chinese PLA forces at Manchuria border. [CQ1, 92]

OCT 27 Sec. of State Acheson top secret wire to U.S. embassy in India urges Indian Government to forestall Chinese conquest of Tibet, but U.S. will not press India to take action. [FR, VI, 545]

OCT 27 Tibetans in India confirm invasion. Peking-Nehru ties damaged. Indian army skeptical of reports. [NY]

OCT 28 Indian representative in Lhasa confirms invasion to Nehru. [LT, 91]

OCT 28 Nehru protests invasion to Peking, threatening 'action'. Peking downplays military moves. [NY]

OCT 29 Indian Ambassador Panikkar confirms invasion. India-China relations strained. India may concede Tibet to China but hope for autonomy. Tibet appeals to India to raise issue in U.N. Pakistan says Chinese moves internal affair. [NY]

OCT 30 PLA troops advance on Lhasa on four fronts. Tibetan mission leaves Calcutta. Peking surprised at Indian protest. [NY]

OCT 31 U.S. ambassador in India thinks China will continue its conquest of Tibet regardless of Indian sensibilities. India has instructed its mission to remain open in Lhasa and its military training mission to stay in Gyantse. India has also advised Tibetans not to send delegation to Peking at time of military invasion. [FR, VI, 548]

OCT 31 PLA troops 200 miles from Lhasa. 'People's forces' rising against Lhasa. Ambassador comments on invasion. [NY]

NOV Dalai Lama's brother Taktser Rinpoche (Thupten Jigme Norbu) arrives in Lhasa after being held under duress in Amdo. He witnessed destruction of Kumbum Monastery and reports that Sining Governor wanted him to betray Tibet so that it could be annexed to China. [D3, 53-54]

NOV 1 Sec. of State Acheson says at news conference that very little information was available about situation in Tibet, but the U.S. would view seriously any new evidence of Communist aggression there. [FR, VI, 551]

NOV 1 50,000 PLA troops 100 miles from Lhasa. Peking says invasion is internal affair and rejects Indian protest. China offers to negotiate with Tibetan delegation in India. [NY]

NOV 2 U.S. ambassador in India discusses Chinese invasion of Tibet with Nehru, who urges U.S. to do nothing. [FR, VI, 550]

NOV 2 Second diplomatic note from India opposes China. India Cabinet Minister Patel praises Tibet as peaceful country. India will not withdraw troops from trade route and Gyantse. China pushing indoctrinated border Tibetans into Tibet. Tibetan Government stymied. Dalai Lama may flee. Peking Radio says Chamdo captured along with two Britons and two Indians. China claims war campaign began October 7th with Gen. Liu Po-cheng's 2d field army taking Markham Dzong with no opposition. China says garrison and its leader defected. Secretary of State Acheson declines comment but says U.S. is concerned. [NY]

NOV 3 India asks Tibetan mission to Peking to wait for cease-fire, condemns invasion and says Sino-Indian relations damaged. China says India influenced by U.S. and U.K. attempt to control Tibet. Moscow press article supports China. India-China diplomatic exchange published. [NY]

NOV 3 PLA troops begin counter-attack on U.N. forces in Korea. [CQ1, 92]

NOV 4 PLA troops 135 miles from Lhasa. Chamdo taken. Tibetan Government to flee. India may raise issue at U.N. [NY]

NOV 5 Communications restored between Lhasa and Delhi. [LT, 94]

NOV 5 India says Lhasa-New Delhi radio dead for six days. UP says Dalai Lama may be held by pro-Communist Tibetans. Major impact on Sino-Indian relations seen. [NY]

NOV 6 Indian agent in Lhasa, S. Sinha, says Dalai Lama still in Lhasa and that Chamdo was taken with help from deserting Tibetan troops. He says Tibetan Government stopped Peking delegation and may appeal to U.N. Panchen Lama with PLA 100 miles from Lhasa. London stock market reacts. [NY]

NOV 7 PLA at Reting, 60 miles from Lhasa, and advance toward Gartok. Tibetans may oppose own Government and aid overthrow. U.K. may appeal to U.N. Security Council. [NY]

NOV 7 Tibetan Cabinet cables appeal to U.N. via India. (Full text: [D1, 249-253]) [HC, 75]

NOV 8 U.S. silent on Chinese war against Tibet. Interim Tibetan Government orders troops not to resist. [NY]

NOV 9 Sec. of State Acheson refers to Chinese Communist invasion of Tibet in wire to U.S. Asian consulates. [FR, VI, 157]

NOV 9 PLA 40 miles from Lhasa, which is surrounded. Pro-China government orders troops not to resist. India claims it has no further news. [NY]

NOV 9 Chinese troops reported in Lhasa. [CQ1, 92]

NOV 10 Indian press report from Kalimpong says Peking radio has announced a Tibet-China agreement and cease-fire. [LT, 95]

NOV 10 Patel condemns Chinese attack on Tibet. [FR]

NOV 10 Minister Patel urges Indians to resist incursions on northern frontier. PLA troops by-pass Phondo Dzong. Tibetan Government distressed and considers capitulation. Peking notes Pakistani criticism of Nehru's objections to invasion. Communist 'reforms' in occupied Tibet described. [NY]

NOV 11 Tibetan leaders wire an appeal to the U.N. from Kalimpong. (Full text: [D1, 249-253]) [MG, 160]

NOV 11 India says Tibet asks U.N. mediation, but deny Voice of America broadcasts that PLA have entered Lhasa. India rejects Chinese demand that Indian troops withdraw. U.N. reluct to take up Tibet issue. [NY]

NOV 12 Ambassador Henderson says U.S. will not intervene. Tibetan Cabinet split on resistance. Some PLA defection in Kham under Gen. Lin Wen-hui. China repeats 'offer' of religious freedom and autonomy. [NY]

NOV 14 Tibetan National Assembly sends peace delegation to meet invaders to make truce. Earlier reports of leftist seizure of Tibetan Government in error. Tibet asks U.N. aid, asserting independence since 1914, but no nation is willing to raise issue in Security Council. National Assembly orders Peking mission to halt until Chinese withdraw troops. Sinha reports Lhasa quiet. India Parliament backs second Nehru protest. Some invaders are mounted Chinese Moslems. [NY]

NOV 15 Prasad backs Tibetan autonomy. Tibetans in India hope that cease-fire efforts will spare Lhasa from attack. India wary of Chinese forces nearby. Possible Peking order of cease-fire. [NY]

NOV 16 Sec. of State Acheson informs U.S. delegation at U.N. to follow India's lead on Tibet and make to most of propaganda value to help U.S. positions on Formosa and Korea. U.S. will not take initiative and doubts U.N. action would preserve Tibetan autonomy. [FR, VI, 577]

NOV 16 U.N. delegate from El Salvador asks General Assembly to debate Tibet invasion. Sinha denies Tibet-China pact on Tibet status. U.S. pushes India role on Tibet. El Salvador pressured to drop matter. PLA stalled at Lharigno, 250 miles NE of Lhasa. [NY]

NOV 17 Dalai Lama assumes full leadership of Tibet at age 15, undermining Panchen Lama. China again rejects Indian

protests as interference in internal affairs. El Salvador refuses to drop Tibet issue. [NY]

NOV 18 TiBet to send three delegates to U.N. Indian official says India will back Tibet at U.N. [NY]

NOV 19 El Salvador offers U.N. resolution condemning invasion. China claims U.S.-U.K. plot to undermine Sino-Indian relations. [NY]

NOV 21 Nehru says India accepts McMahon line fixing NE border with Tibet since 1914 and sends further troop reinforcements to northern frontier. U.N. holds off resolution discussion. [NY]

NOV 22 Three-man U.N. delegation leaves Lhasa. U.S.S.R. had surveyed Tibet in April-June 1950 for air bases. [NY]

NOV 23 U.S.S.R. role in Tibet described. [NY] NOV 24 U.N. General Assembly votes unanimously to postpone consideration of Tibet question based upon India's hope that China will make peaceful

settlement. U.K. representative says legal situation of Tibet is obscure. [FR, VI, 583] NOV 24 Nehru says India will keep diplomatic representatives in

Tibet in accord with treaties despite invasion. Further reports on U.S.S.R. role in Tibet. [NY]

NOV 25

U.N. postpones action when India says Tibet and China can reach settlement. [NY]

NOV 26 U.S. Senator Knowland attacks India for lack of firm stand against invasion. India resists Chinese claim to border areas. [NY]

NOV 26 China sends 300,000 troops across border into North Korea against U.S. and U.N. forces. [JS, 100]

NOV 28 NSC meeting concurs with MacArthur's defensive posture in Korea considering extent of Chinese forces. [JS, 107]

NOV 29 Dalai Lama sends treasure to Phari Dzong. [NY]

NOV 30 U.S. ambassador in India wires Sec. of State that India has not challenged Chinese claims to Tibet and that supposed assurances from China which postponed U.N. debate are dubious. [FR, VI, 584]

DEC India-Sikkim border treaty. [FW, 71]

DEC Before leaving Lhasa for Yatung, Dalai Lama appoints Lobsang Tashi and Lukhangwa as Prime Ministers. [D1, 85]

DEC 1 Dalai Lama ready to flee. Gold transfer to Sikkim. El Salvador urges U.N. action on China invasion. [NY]

DEC 1 Secret U.S. policy statement on India: U.S. wants Indian manganese for steel industry and access to Indian air transport services. U.S. should offer to develop air navigation and communications facilities. [FR]

DEC 2 Tibet urges action on U.N. resolution. [NY]

DEC 3 China reports capture of Lolungchung. Tibetan Cabinet prepares for relocation of administration. [NY]

DEC 5 British radio operator Robert Ford said captured and charged with killing a lama. (See his: Captured in Tibet) [NY]

DEC 8 U.S. Commerce Dept. complete embargo of China. [CQ1, 93]

DEC 9 Peking radio says Tibetans released after indoctrination. [NY]

DEC 12 China establishes a government in western Sikang province formerly under Lhasa control. Nehru says PLA has not passed Chamdo. [NY]

DEC 13 Peking radio says Tingching captured. [NY]

DEC 14 Sec. of State Acheson actively exploring possible joint U.S.-U.K.-India effort to obstruct or halt Chinese assault against Tibet, which he reports has been slowed or stalled by winter. [FR, VI, 602]

DEC 16 Sec. of State sent secret wire concerning U.K. diplomatic conference mentioning Chinese invasion of Tibet. [FR, VI, 181]

DEC 18 India believes Tibet's military situation is hopeless. [FR, VI, 603]

DEC 19 Dalai Lama leaves Lhasa for Yatung near Sikkim border. [HC, 76]

DEC 21 Tibetan delegation to U.N. at Kalimpong asks U.S. in letter for help in bringing Tibet matter before the United Nations. [FR, VI, 611]

DEC 21 British Foreign Office believes U.S.S.R. convinced China that U.K. was prompting Indian designs on Tibet. [FR, VI, 184]

DEC 24 Dalai Lama grants amnesty to Tibet dissidents. [NY]

DEC 25 Tibetan Foreign Secretary Dzasa Surkang says guerilla warfare against Chinese will result if no outside aid arrives. [NY]

DEC 26 Dalai Lama fleeing to India. New PLA military moves. [NY]

DEC 27 Government of India expecting Dalai Lama to stay there in exile, he is in transit and should arrive in Gyantse shortly. [FR, VI, 611]

DEC 27 India orders Tibetans to get permits and register as foreigners to enter India. [NY]

DEC 28 Tibetan Government to relocate near India border. [NY]

DEC 30 Secret memo from U.S. State Dept. to British Embassy states universal recognition of Tibet's de facto autonomy since 1914. Depending upon conditions Tibet could be recognized by U.S. as an independent State. [FR, VI, 612-613]

DEC 30 Dalai Lama in transit to Yatung. Tibetan officials confer in Kalimpong, India. Panchen Lama to be installed by China as new Tibet regime. [NY]

DEC 30 U.S. embargoes trade with mainland China. [CQ1, 63]

DEC 31 PLA massed at Rudok. India urges Dalai Lama to defer flight to India until China threat more imminent. [NY]


1951 Gyalo Thondup and CIA establish intelligence-gathering operation. [JA, 47]

JAN 1 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees becomes operational. [HE, 646]

JAN 2 Indian agent Sinha reportedly ousted from Lhasa by pro-Communists. Dalai Lama in transit to Yatung. [NY]

JAN 4 Dalai Lama arrives at Yatung near Indian border. [MG, 168]

JAN 4 Sinha expulsion not confirmed in India. [NY]

JAN 5 Sinha moving to Gyantse. Chinese Communist mission in Lhasa. [NY]

JAN 6 Sec. of State Acheson sends top secret wire to India embassy that Tibetans should be told U.S. is sympathetic to U.N. appeal and continued Tibetan autonomy. U.S. also believes every effort should be made to hinder Communist occupation of Tibet, although conquest of Tibet seems very probable. [FR, VI, 618]

JAN 7 Dalai Lama's representatives reach Gangtok in Sikkim. [NY]

JAN 8 Government aides join Dalai Lama. [NY]

JAN 9 Chinese flag raised in Lhasa. [NY]

JAN 12 Refuge prepared at Gangtok for the Dalai Lama. [NY]

JAN 12 Joint Chiefs of Staff recommends U.S. attack Chinese targets in Manchuria, blockade Chinese ports, and support Nationalists in attack on mainland. [CQ]

JAN 13 India bars press from entry to Tibet at Tibetan request. [NY]

JAN 14 Dalai Lama representatives in Lhasa negotiate with Chinese. He will return to capital under right conditions. PLA near Shigatse. [NY]

JAN 19 Dalai Lama urges Cabinet to speed U.N. plea. [NY]

JAN 20 Psychological warfare used against Tibetans. Chamdo supposedly taken with fireworks display. [NY]

JAN 21 Indian official says Chinese do not control Tibet. Tibetan officials say PLA as far as Gartok and Lharigo. [NY]

JAN 22 NSC 98/1 on U.S. policy on South Asia says Tibet invasion a factor in threat of loss of India to Communism. Critical for U.S. to develop joint U.S.-U.K. policies to oppose U.S.S.R. inroads and keep U.S. access to strategic resources of India. [FR]

JAN 26 PLA troops withdrawn from northern and western areas of Tibet. [NY]

JAN 27 PLA goal to take Tibet in 1951 described. [NY]

FEB 3 PLA surrounding Lhasa, advance troops at India and western borders. India bolsters border guards. Ganden, Sera, and Drepung monasteries confer with Dalai Lama. [NY]

FEB 11 China insists on Tibet talks in Peking. [NY]

FEB 14 Secret U.S.-U.K. talks in London: U.S. still supporting Tibetan appeal to U.N. but will not initiate any action. U.K. agrees to defer to India, and admits U.N. action would be minimal other than to emphasize a "moral aspect." [FR]

FEB 15 Chinese troops cross India's northeast border. [NY]

FEB 25 Dalai Lama's brother in Yatung for talks. [NY]

FEB 27 China-Tibet talks near. [NY]

FEB 28 Dalai Lama's mother in India on pilgrimage. [NY]

MAR 3 Dalai Lama's mother describes Chinese peace offer. [NY]

MAR 6 Agreement on Tibet autonomy. [NY]

MAR 9 Two delegations on way to Peking. China to end war with assurance of Tibet autonomy. Tibetans surrender due to apathy. [NY]

MAR 13 China border crossing incident downplayed by India. [NY]

MAR 14 Nehru ready to withdraw troops from trade routes. [NY]

MAR 14 Finance Secretary (Tsepon) Shakabpa cleared of unduly delaying mission to Peking. [NY]

MAR 22 Tibet mission led by Dzasa Kunsang to first meet with Nehru. Pravda says a Tibetan lama visits Mao. [NY]

MAR 24 Chinese refugee tells of difficulties of military invasion. [NY]

MAR 30 China in control of western Tibetan passes. [NY]

APR 2 Tibetan mission in New Delhi. [NY]

APR 6 China to build road to Chamdo. [NY]

APR 7 Dalai Lama to return to Lhasa. [NY]

APR 11 MacArthur replaced by Ridgeway for publicly stating plans to widen war against China. [CQ0, 56]

APR 20 Tibetan mission in Hong Kong says no PLA troops in Tibet proper. [NY]

APR 22 Tibet mission leaves for Peking. [NY]

APR 28 Panchen Lama celebrated in Peking. [NY]

APR 29 Sino-Tibetan negotiations begin in Peking. [MG, 169]

MAY 23 17-Point Agreement signed in Peking without approval of the Dalai Lama or the Tibetan Government. [JA, 35-36]

MAY 24 Tibetan Government returning to Lhasa. [NY]

MAY 28 China-Tibet agreement signed: Tibet to be autonomous, with its own political and religious institutions, and China to control defense and foreign affairs. Panchen Lama to leave Kumbum for Tibet. [NY]

MAY 29 India upset with pact, may ask China for clarification. [NY]

MAY 30 Four Peking-trained Tibetans to administer Lhasa with PLA commander Chi Chang-chen. Unrest feared at return of Panchen Lama. [NY]

MAY 31 Pravda says U.K. illegally took Bhutan and Sikkim in 1890. [NY]

JUN Taktser Rinpoche writes Dalai Lama from Calcutta advising him to flee to India at once. [D3, 64]

JUN 3 Peking appoints Chang Ching-wu to implement pact. [NY]

JUN 9 Peking radio says PLA preparing to occupy Tibet. [NY]

JUN 12 Nehru says India accepts Communist sovereignty over Tibet. [NY]

JUN 13 Peking radio says China to study conditions in Tibet. [NY]

JUN 19 Dalai Lama undecided on return to Lhasa, some ministers advise rule from India until Communism defeated. [NY]

JUN 22 Pact signing on May 24 illustrated. Mao meets with Panchen Lama. [NY]

JUN 28 Chinese-Tibetan group arrives at Hong Kong en route to administer pact in Tibet. [NY]

JUL Taktser Rinpoche (Dalai Lama's brother) meets with U.S. State Dept. officials. [FR]

JUL Taktser Rinpoche writes Dalai Lama from Calcutta that the U.S. consulate has granted Taktser permission to enter the U.S. U.S. has suggested that once Dalai Lama enters exile in India, U.S. aid may be forthcoming. [D3, 65]

JUL U.S. may be urging Dalai Lama via coded radio between Yatung and Kalimpong to flee Tibet and publicly repudiate the May 23rd Agreement. [MG, 174]

JUL 2 Chinese mission to Tibet in India. [NY]

JUL 6 Communist mission to Tibet in India. [NY]

JUL 9 Dalai Lama's brother Taktser Rinpoche in U.S. [NY]

JUL 14 Gen. Chang Ching-wu arrives in Yatung for talks with Dalai Lama. [MG, 175]

JUL 16 Dalai Lama meets Gen. Chang Ching-wu. [MG, 175]

JUL 16 Dalai Lama to return to Lhasa, PLA troops expected there. [NY]

JUL 17 Dalai Lama summons Tibetan officials from Kalimpong, India, where much wealth reportedly is left behind. [NY]

JUL 18 Dalai Lama ready to repudiate pact with China. [NY]

JUL 23 Dalai Lama en route to Lhasa. [NY]

AUG 1 U.S. ends tariff concessions to Communist-controlled lands. []

AUG 4 India heightens border security with increased PLA troop activity. [NY]

AUG 6 Road being built from Kham to Lhasa. Dalai Lama and Chinese missions near Lhasa. [NY]

AUG 12 China plans road from Lhasa to Taklokot. [NY]

AUG 18 Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa greeted by host. [NY]

AUG 23 China in military control of western Tibet. [NY]

AUG 28 PLA troops mass to control passes into India and Nepal. Tibetan parliament to ratify pact. [NY]

SEP 8 Japanese Peace Treaty signed by 49 nations in San Francisco. [C1, 96]

SEP 9 3,000 Chinese troops enter and begin occupation of Lhasa. 17,000 more troops arrive within 3 months. [JA, 37]

SEP 15 PLA troops in Lhasa. [NY]

SEP 16 Dalai Lama's brother Gyalo Thondup says communism fails in Tibet. [NY]

SEP 25 Panchen Lama leaves Kumbum for Tashilhunpo, said to take religious leadership from Dalai Lama. [NY]

SEP 27 PLA troops confirmed in Lhasa. [NY]

OCT 2 China plans airfield near Lhasa. [NY]

OCT 6 Stalin confirms U.S.S.R. atomic tests. [CQ1, 96]

OCT 7 PLA in control of Lhasa-India road. [NY]

OCT 14 Tibet wants change in pact, delays signing. [NY]

OCT 17 PLA troops headed for Shigatse. Dalai Lama appoints civil administration. [NY]

OCT 19 Chinese occupation military orders confiscation of properties of nobles and officials. [NY]

OCT 23 Monasteries refuse to disarm, PLA reinforces Lhasa. [NY]

OCT 26 Another 5000 Chinese troops arrive in Lhasa. [MG, 179]

OCT 26 Battle Act restricts third-country transfer of strategic materials to China and U.S.S.R. [FR]

OCT 28 Dalai Lama ratifies pact. [NY]

OCT 29 India Ambassador Panikkar says China implements Nationalist policy in Tibet. Further property seizures linked to supposed declaration of equality for women by military occupiers. [NY]

NOV 8 PLA planes to Lhasa. Reportedly General Chang gives money to monasteries. More PLA troops on India and Nepal borders. [NY]

NOV 10 National Parliament (Tsongdu) to discuss pact. Gen. Chang to leave. [NY]

NOV 13 PLA troops enter Gyantse, where India has troops which will withdraw if asked. [NY]

NOV 18 Tsongdu ratifies pact with China. Gen. Chang Kuo-hua (?) to replace Chang. [NY]

NOV 20 Dalai Lama prepares to welcome Panchen Lama. PLA troops cause inflation of prices in Gyantse. [NY]

NOV 21 Mao hails pact in message to Dalai Lama. [NY]

NOV 24 More PLA troops arrive in Tibet and more planned. [NY]

DEC 4 PLA troops near Bhutan border. Chinese collaborator and ex-president of Tibetan 'provisional government' is in Tibet as an aide to Panchen Lama. [NY]

DEC 5 PLA enters Yatung. Military opens a Marxist cultural dept. [NY]

DEC 15 Panchen Lama leaves for Lhasa. Lama in Nepal lauds Chinese treatment of Tibetans. [NY]


1952 Truman approves CIA plan for 10,000 Chinese Nationalist troops in Burma to invade China. Early this year they do so and are crushed. [TP, 92]

JAN Truman privately considers and rejects an ultimatum to China and U.S.S.R. over Korea, threatening nuclear devastation in Asia. [RP, 59]

JAN 11 PLA airlift to Lhasa fails, troops loot villages in Shigatse area. [NY]

FEB 1 Khampa tribes refuse to disarm. China builds up Chamdo as administrative center, leaving Lhasa as religious center. [NY]

FEB 13 Top secret memo of State Dept. meeting with Taktser Rinpoche in Washington: Tibet trying to temporarily adjust to Chinese and hopes U.S. will keep silent publicly while still supporting Tibet. U.S. expresses sympathy for Tibetan loss of traditional religious and political freedom and pledges continued friendship with Tibet, while agreeing not to make statements. [FR]

FEB 15 Panchen Lama en route to Shigatse. [NY]

FEB 20 Tibetan army merged into PLA forces under supposed direction of two Cabinet ministers. Dalai Lama's mother and brother leave for India. [NY]

FEB 21 Top secret cable from U.S. Ambassador to India to President Truman: India needs food assistance and economic aid to forestall a Communist victory as in China. [FR]

MAR 15 PLA strengthens Phari garrison at India-Tibet border. [NY]

MAR 17 India press says PLA has seized food supply in Tibet. [NY]

MAR 21 China may ask India to remove trade route troops. [NY]

MAR 30 Chinese troops mass strength at western Tibetan border with India. [NY]

APR 2 China asks U.S.S.R. technicians for aid in exploiting Tibet. [NY]

APR 24 Tibetan Government asks PLA troops to leave Lhasa as dissent grows over famine caused by China. Tibetans ask for arms to fight Chinese. [NY]

APR 25 PLA pulls back from Yatung after delivering two Indian radio operators across border. [NY]

APR 26 PLA tightens security as unrest grows. [NY]

APR 27 Fearing Chinese reprisals, Dalai Lama reluctantly asks Lukhangwa and Lobsang Tashi to resign, taking on their responsibilities himself. [MG, 190]

APR 28 Panchen Lama arrives in Lhasa for the first time from Peking. [AC, 76]

MAY 1 Chinese pressure the Dalai Lama to disband the Mimang Tshogpa, or People's Party. [MG, 200]

MAY 3 Chinese censor mail in Tibet. China asks India for supplies. [NY]

MAY 4 Lhasa PLA garrison suffers armed attack by Tibetans. [NY]

MAY 5 PLA search and seizure of Lhasa arms. [NY]

MAY 6 PLA troops patrol Lhasa streets. Chinese deserter captured in Yatung. [NY]

MAY 7 India denies knowledge of Lhasa fighting. [NY]

MAY 9 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama meet in Lhasa. [NY]

MAY 14 Top secret State Dept. memo evaluates Taktser Rinpoche's information: Dalai Lama is organizing resistance to Chinese occupation while appearing to please China; Lhasans have renounced support for puppet Cabinet and sworn opposition to Chinese; and, Panchen Lama secretly opposes China as well. State Dept. believes 10-15,000 Chinese troops in Tibet, 5,000 at or near Lhasa. Chinese have caused an acute food shortage with massive army presence. Incipient Tibetan resistance movement is growing and desired effect is being felt by India. State Dept. affirms policy of no publicity about events concerning Tibet. [FR]

MAY 16 China removes Tibetan Cabinet, sets up administrative committee with Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. Seized estates restored to Panchen Lama. [NY]

MAY 22 Dalai Lama, under Chinese pressure, fires Prime Minister Sawang Lukhang after anti-Chinese demonstrations. [NY]

JUN 4 Nepali representative asked to leave Shigatse residence for use by Panchen Lama. [NY]

JUN 5 Nehru confirms Lhasa fighting. Gen. Chang Ching-wu calls Lhasa meeting to pacify Tibetan dissent. [NY]

JUN 10 Nepal representative talks with Dalai Lama. [NY]

JUN 12 Mrs. Pandit reported to have told Chou in Peking that India recognizes Chinese 'suzereignty' over Tibet. [1952-54 FR, XIV, 63]

JUN 13 Chinese heavily repress Lhasa demonstrators. [NY]

JUN 22 Nehru says Tibet no longer independent. India will remove Indian troops from Yatung and Gyantse if asked. [NY]

JUN 24 Panchen Lama returns to Shigatse. [NY]

JUL 1 Dalai Lama tells U.S. that Tibetans are not pro-Chinese, food situation in Lhasa is very bad, and 90% of the 10,000 Chinese troops in Lhasa are poorly fed. [1952-54, FR, XIV, 96]

JUL 10 PLA garrisons Yatung to secure trade route. [NY]

AUG 6 U.S. embassy in New Delhi instructed to warn Gyalo Thondup and his wife from linking themselves or Tibet with the United States. [1952-54 FR, XIV, 96]

AUG 8 Tibetan Government to send goodwill mission to Peking. [NY]

AUG 12 Kungo Rampa named first permanent representative from Tibet in Peking. Children of Tibetan officials to tour China. [NY]

AUG 20 U.S. embassy in New Delhi recommends against using Gyalo Thondup for information from Calcutta or Darjeeling for fear of arousing suspicion. [1952-54 FR, XIV, 96]

AUG 22 Tibetans waiting for opportune moment to strike occupation forces. Economy worsens under communism. Monks and nobility lead opposition to Chinese military rule. [NY]

AUG 23 PLA troops entrenched on trade route near India, survey area. [NY]

AUG 24 Tibetans in Sikkim say communism not wanted in Tibet. Sikkim's influence described. [NY]

AUG 26 China plans occupation army of 200,000 troops. Tibetans form secret 'peoples committees' in defiance of China and with support of Dalai Lama. Dalai Lama rejects puppet chairmanship of proposed political and military committee on their advice. Tibetan officials cooperating but ready to rebel. Tibetan troops attack PLA troops in several battles and are segregated. [NY]

AUG 31 Indian reaction to Chinese rule in Tibet. [NY]

SEP 3 J.J. Singh on why U.N. dropped case against Chinese invasion. [NY]

SEP 6 U.S. consul in Calcutta meets with Gyalo Thondup in Darjeeling; food situation poor, but Dalai Lama has reduced taxes and two-thirds of grain reserves. [1952-54 FR, XIV, 96]

SEP 6 PLA ships guns from Lhasa to Yatung by night. [NY]

SEP 10 U.S. consulate in Calcutta says Chinese slowly consolidating control of Tibet, but Tibetans restive and Dalai Lama's influence is gaining. [1952-54 FR, XIV, 96]

SEP 14 Tibetan goodwill mission to China has its movements controlled en route. [NY]

OCT 7 China introduces wheeled military vehicles into Tibet. [NY]

OCT 24 Candidate Eisenhower says he will go to Korea if elected to work to end the war. [JS, 236]

NOV 2 Eisenhower elected President. [HE, 599]

NOV 4 Truman signs NSCID 6 creating National Security Agency to intercept communications world-wide. NSA later creates a separate section for Chinese intercepts, presumably recording the growing control of Tibet. [NW, 264]

NOV 10 Forty dead in battles between PLA and tribesmen. [NY]

NOV 11 China building Lhasa-Kangting road. [NY]

NOV 14 PLA troops enter Nepal from Taklakot. [NY]

NOV 23 India wary of Communist aggression but placates China for sake of 'Asian stability'. [NY]

NOV 26 Peking radio says Mao urges Tibetan population rise to 10 million indicating possible Chinese intention for massive population transfer into Tibet. Mao says Tibetan economy and culture need development and religion will be protected. [NY]

DEC 27 Peking to establish six-man staffed office for Dalai Lama. [NY]


JAN Eisenhower ends U.S. blockade of Taiwan Strait. [JS, 241]

JAN 7 Truman confirms U.S. has hydrogen bomb. [CQ1, 100]

JAN 10 2,000 camels sent to Tibet to expedite PLA troop movement. [NY]

JAN 23 Peking press denounces U.S. plans for atomic attack. [LL, 14]

FEB Eisenhower considers using atomic bomb in Korea. [JS, 241]

FEB 3 China building three military roads in Tibet. [NY]

FEB 10 U.S. reported stepping up arms supplies to Chiang regime. [CQ1, 100]

MAR 5 Stalin dies. [HE, 541]

APR 2 NSC 147 reviews possible use of nuclear weapons against Korea and China. [LL, 255]

MAY 29 New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first climbers to reach the peak of Mount Everest, Chomolungma. []

JUNE U.S. Air Force orders construction of B-52s, capable of delivering H-bombs on U.S.S.R. and China. [RP, 63]

JULY U.S. and India dispute over Indian sales of thorium nitrate to China, despite secret sales of monzanite to U.S. [FR]

JUL 27 Korean war ends with near 3 million casualties in total and the whole peninsula in ruins. U.S. uses 386,000 tons of bombs and 32,000 tons of napalm, costs run to $83 billion by 1956. [JS, 253]

AUG 20 U.S.S.R. announces it has tested hydrogen bomb. [CQ]

SEP 3 U.S. decides not to terminate aid to India over thorium issue but begins buying Indian thorium nitrate and beryl in large quantity. [FR]

SEP 24 China enlarges garrisons in southern and western Tibet. India asks for conference on Indians in Tibet. Nehru says relations with China are friendly. [NY]

OCT 22 China agrees to confer with India in December in Peking on various issues. [NY]

OCT 27 India recalls Ambassador Raghavan for pre-conference talks. [NY]

OCT 30 NSC 162/2 establishes U.S. foreign policy on nuclear weapons' striking power against China and urges arming Taiwan. [LL, 17]

NOV 6 NSC 166/1 establishes U.S. China policy on covert and overt weakening of Sino-Soviet alliance. Taiwan Nationalist forces are U.S. strategic reserve in Far East. All-out nuclear attack on China would deplete U.S. atomic stockpile considerably. [LL, 18]

NOV 6 NSC 146/2 establishes U.S. Taiwan policy on raids against mainland China and sea traffic through Taiwan Strait. [LL, 24]

NOV 17 Nehru says conference set. [NY]

NOV 26 China withdraws troops from Tibet due to food shortage. [NY]

DEC 2 Dalai Lama refuses to fly Communist Chinese flag over Potala and demands occupation forces withdraw. Anti-Communist People's party appears publicly. Up to a third of PLA troops to leave due to food shortage. [NY]

DEC 20 China further partitions Tibet, as a five-county 'autonomous region' is annexed by Qinghai province. [NY]

DEC 26 Nixon confers with Chiang on military preparations against mainland China. [NY]


1954 Dalai Lama publishes A Meditation on Compassion in Tibetan in Lhasa. [D2, 156]

JAN 1 Peking radio describes Sino-Indian talks. [NY]

JAN 12 Sec. of State Dulles announces U.S. policy of massive retaliation, i.e. nuclear attack on U.S.S.R. or China, including local tactical strikes. [CQ1, 101]

MAR PLA reports killing 90,000 rebels in Sinkiang. [FW, 172]

APR 11 Peking gives Panchen Lama a British automobile. [NY]

APR 22 Nehru calls for halt to all atomic testing. [HE, 597]

APR 29 Full text of India-China agreement on trade between Tibet and India. [DW, 393]

APR 30 India signs eight-year non-aggression pact with China and says Tibet is part of China. India returns all property in Tibet to China and withdraws troops from Yatung and Gyantse. Agreement regulates trade and pilgrim border crossing issues. [NY]

MAY 1 India surrenders post and telegraph facilities to China as 'friendly gesture'. [NY]

MAY 4 Nehru describes pact with China. [NY]

MAY 17 Indian Parliament debates Tibet issue and voices disagreement with Nehru on ancient Tibetan autonomy. [NY]

MAY 26 Asia's largest airfield near completion under at Jyekundo near Tibet-China border. PLA conducts building program in Lhasa. [NY]

JUN 6 Sino-Indian pact ratified. Tibet to be known by India as "Tibet region of China." India sends officials to Tibet to close offices. [NY]

JUN 27 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to visit Peking. Nehru and Chou En-lai praise pact as model for international relations. [NY]

JUN 28 Text of pact in NYT. Chou praises Nehru concept of 'peaceful coexistence'. [NY]

JUN 29 Joint statement on conference at New Delhi. [NY]

JUL 11 Dalai Lama departs Lhasa for Peking to attend the first Chinese People's National Assembly. [JA, 209]

JUL 13 Tibetan leaders oppose Dalai Lama visit to Peking. [NY]

JUL 23 China downs a British aircraft over the South China Sea. [CQ1, 103]

JUL 26 U.S. downs two Chinese aircraft in the same area. [CQ1, 103]

AUG 11 U.S.S.R. charges Himalayan climbers with spying. [NY]

AUG 11 Chou urges 'liberation' of Taiwan. [CQ1, 104]

AUG 17 Eisenhower says U.S. 7th fleet will bar Chinese attacks on Taiwan. [CQ1, 104]

AUG 18 NSC 5429 discussion of U.S. Far East policy: Sec. of State Dulles says if U.S. policy in 1953 had been to use force to prevent further Communist control in Asia, then the U.S. would have been obliged to go to war to prevent the Chinese takeover of Tibet. [1952-54 FR, XII, 749]

AUG 20 Kanting Rebellion breaks out in southern Kham. [MP, 57]

AUG 24 Taiwan says 40,000 in Tibetan uprising against PLA troops some months earlier. [NY]

SEP 3 China begins shelling Nationalist-held Quemoy island and Nationalists return fire. [CQ1, 104]

SEP 4 U.S. intelligence reports China unlikely to go to war with the U.S. over attacks. [LL, 30]

SEP 4 Dulles orders 7th fleet into Taiwan strait. [CQ1, 104]

SEP 5 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama in Peking. [NY]

SEP 7 Nationalists begin large-scale air attacks on Chinese mainland. [CQ1, 104]

SEP 8 SEATO formed as a mutual defense treaty among U.S., Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand. [CQ1, 104]

SEP 12 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama are received by Mao. [NY]

SEP 19 Tibetan armed revolt against occupation troops. [NY]

SEP 21 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama meeting with Chou and Gen. Chu Teh featured. [NY]

SEP 22 Senthi and Khampa leaders captured and tried in Lhasa. [NY]

SEP 29 Khrushchev begins first trip to China, through October 12th. [LL,26]

OCT 8 3,000 Tibetans in Kalimpong, India, ask Nehru aid in return of Dalai Lama from Peking. [NY]

OCT 10 India to guard Kashmir-India border. [NY]

OCT 20 Nehru meets Dalai Lama in Peking. [NY]

OCT 21 Tibetan revolt in northeast Tibet successful. China forced to withdraw and grant autonomy. [NY]

NOV Eisenhower approves plan for aerial surveillance plane capable of flying over U.S.S.R. and China. [GY, 18]

NOV China reports that 20,000 Tibetans are working on the Sikang-Tibet highway. [MG, 204]

NOV 1 China begins bombing Dachen islands. [LL, 31]

DEC 2 U.S.-Taiwan mutual defense treaty signed at Washington. [CQ1, 104]

DEC 10 Nationalists formally agree not to attack mainland China without consulting the U.S. [CQ1, 104]

DEC 22 U.S. policy towards the Far East contained in NSC document 5429/5, includes U.S. destabilization of Sino-Soviet alliance. [FR]

DEC 26 Panchen Lama made vice chair of Chinese Political Consultative Conference at Peking. [NY]


1955 Nuclear blast reported in Sinkiang. [1961 CR, 21061]

JAN 13 U.N. Sec. General Hammarskjold returns from trip to Peking for talks with Chou. [CQ1, 105]

JAN 15 Mao, Chou preside over Central Secretariat meeting where China decides to develop nuclear weapons under program "02", with Soviet aid. [LL, 38]

JAN 17 U.S.S.R. to assist China with peaceful development of atomic energy. [LL, 41]

JAN 20 U.S.S.R.-China accord on uranium surveys and supply. [LL, 41]

JAN 24 Chou condemns U.S. threats to use atomic weapons in support of Nationalist 'occupation' of Taiwan. [CQ1, 105]

JAN 29 Taiwan Resolution becomes law, authorizing U.S. President to use force to protect Taiwan. [LL, 37]

JAN 31 U.S. Supreme Court Justice Douglas fears it is too late to save Tibet from Communists. [NY]

FEB 10 PLA troop movements in southeast China. [NY]

FEB 21 Sulzberger features Chinese propaganda display using the Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama. [NY]

FEB 22 Three Czech engineers in Lhasa to aid Chinese development. [NY]

FEB 25 Mao and other leaders at Tibetan New Year celebration in Peking. [NY]

MAR NSC 5412/1 establishes committee for Presidential approval of major CIA covert operations, including those against Communist nations. [TP, 371]

MAR 3 U.S.-Taiwan mutual defense treaty enters into force. [LL, 32]

MAR 8 Sec. of State Dulles announces to China that U.S. has new "precision" air and naval weapons, i.e. tactical atomic weapons. [CQ0, 73]

MAR 10 Dulles tells Eisenhower that U.S. could use atomic weapons to attack mainland China in defense of Quemoy and Matsu. [RP, 63]

MAR 11 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama return to Tibet. [NY]

MAR 13 Dalai Lama named chair of 51-member preparatory committee to absorb Tibet as 'autonomous region' of China. Panchen Lama is first vice chair. Gen. Chang Kuo-hua named second vice chair. [NY]

MAR 14 41 Chinese 'construction experts' on way to Tibet. [NY]

MAR 16 Eisenhower public statement says U.S. could use atomic weapons in Asia without causing major civilian deaths. [LL, 40]

APR 2 India gives control over communications facilities in Tibet to China in accord with 1954 pact. [NY]

APR 23 Chou says China ready to negotiate with U.S. over Taiwan crisis. [CQ1, 106]

APR 27 U.S.S.R. agrees to give China a nuclear reactor and cyclotron. [LL, 41]

JUN 15 U.S. Taiwan policy set forth in NSC 5503, where U.S. confirms recognition of Taiwan as the only government of China. [FR]

JUN 29 Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa from China. [JA, 42]

JUL Former Chinese "province" of Sikang formally abolished. [FW, 60]

JUL Harrer article in National Geographic, with first color photographs of Lhasa to appear in U.S. press. [NG, CVIII, 1, 1-48]

JUL Eisenhower makes "open skies" proposal at Geneva summit conference, rejected by U.S.S.R. [GY, 26]

AUG 1 U.S. and China begin ambassadorial-level talks in Poland. [CQ1, 107]

AUG 6 First U-2 spy plane operational, capable of flying at 70,000 feet over the U.S.S.R. and China. [TP, 108]

AUG 16 Dalai Lama's brother Taktser Rinpoche granted U.S. asylum, interviewed in Tokyo. [NY]

AUG 29 2,000 PLA troops reinforce Yatung at Indian border. [NY]

SEP China establishes Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) north of Tibet against large popular resistance. [FW, 172]

OCT China reports that more than 3,000 Tibetans have completed the Shigatse-Gyantse highway in 102 days. [MG, 204]

NOV NSC 5412/2 further defines 5412 committee on covert actions, including any operations against China. [TP, 371]

NOV 7 Times of India says Chinese troops crossed into disputed border areas. [NY]

DEC 14 Cambodia, Laos, Nepal and Sri Lanka join U.N. [UN]

DEC 24 Kashmir aide K. Bakula to make India-sponsored tour of Tibet. [NY]

DEC 31 By year-end, uranium deposits discovered in Xinjiang at Daladi, Mengqiku'er, and Kashi by Chinese teams. [LL, 78]


JAN 11 Life magazine article says U.S. threats to use tactical atomic attacks on China helped end Korean War and saved Formosa (Taiwan). [CQ1, 108]

FEB Chinese arrest three Mimang (People's Party) leaders after Monlam festival. People of Lithang launch surprise attack on local Chinese garrison and retreat to Lithang Monastery. Chinese siege lasts 64 days and includes air bombardment killing 800 monks. [MG, 255, 261]

FEB 15 Tibetan bands reportedly raid Nepal's northwest border. Nepal to seek treaty with Communist China. [NY]

APR Chinese Foreign Minister Marshal Chen Yi and delegation arrive in Lhasa from Peking for inauguration of PCART. [D3, 106]

APR 15 Chinese preparatory committee for autonomous region of Tibet (PCART) near formal proclamation. [NY]

APR 22 Chinese puppet-government (PCART) opens in Lhasa. [JA, 43]

APR 23 Peking says PCART takes office in Lhasa and exercises local control. Dalai Lama optimistic of committee success to adopt regulations and appoint officials. Peking to increase economic aid. [NY]

APR 28 Dalai Lama and Cabinet to meet Chinese in Lhasa to discuss Chou's pledge to withdraw PLA troops and press discussion of easing of occupation. [NY]

MAY 5 Nepali reports say thousands revolt in Kham region of Eastern Tibet. [NY]

MAY 6 Chinese in Lhasa arrest Tibetan representatives from all over Tibet who met to demand that Chinese leave. Public gatherings banned after anti-Chinese posters up in Lhasa. Tibetans destroy PLA garrison of 600 troops but Chinese in Nepal deny it. [NY]

MAY 8 Nepal says revolt by Golok tribes suffering repression under Chinese. Peking has no comment. [NY]

MAY 10 Kalimpong, India, reports say rebels caused 2500 PLA casualties in Eastern Tibet and PLA bombed rebel bases. [NY]

MAY 13 Rebels form five-man council with Dalai Lama as head of Free Tibet. [NY]

MAY 18 China bombing Eastern Tibet and moving in more troops. Indian press discounts reports of uprisings and massacres. [NY]

MAY 20 Dalai Lama asks people not to rebel. China patrols Eastern Tibet airspace. [NY]

MAY 22 Vice Premier Chen Yi, Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama at April 17th inauguration of PCART. [NY]

JUN 1 China bombs huge Lithang monastery while filled with pilgrims and monks. [D2, 156]

JUN 21 Dalai Lama's brother and others protest to Nehru that no Asian country has condemned savage bombing of Lithang monastery where 4,000 Tibetans died. [NY]

JUN 30 India press now says heavy PLA losses in rebellions in Eastern Tibet, China asks Dalai Lama to intervene. [NY]

JUL PCART sends Karmapa Rinpoche and Ngabo to Chamdo to urge rebels to end uprising, with no success. [MG, 257]

JUL U.S. U-2's begin overflying the U.S.S.R. and U.S. learns U.S.S.R. has no massive long-range bomber program. [RP, 67]

JUL 1 Embassies in New Delhi hesitate to act on Kalimpong reports of rebellion. [NY]

JUL 18 Kalimpong reports say PLA tanks in Lhasa. China asks monks to quell uprisings but are refused. [NY]

AUG 1 Rebels kill Communist delegation as talks fail. [NY]

AUG 8 Peking radio denies rebellion. Liu Ke-ping later concedes uprising in Kantse area. China permits Ragasha Shape to visit India to assuage Indian fears on Tibet security. [NY]

AUG 15 Chinese in Nepal to make new treaty on Tibet. [NY]

AUG 17 U.S.S.R. agrees to assist China's nuclear industries. [LL, 41]

AUG 18 China and Nepal begin talks on trade and friendship treaty. [NY]

AUG 21 China asks India to make Bara Hoti a neutral territory on border, but Nehru says it is in Indian territory. [NY]

AUG 22 China downs U.S. military aircraft off Chinese coast. [CQ1, 110]

SEP 6 Nepalese traders assert China has returned Kham to local control after 'monks revolt', say China undertaking intensive propaganda campaign. [NY]

SEP 8 Chinese intrusion into India at Shipki La. [FW, 90]

SEP 11 Nepalese premier Acharya suggests postponement of China visit due to delay in talks on Tibet. [NY]

SEP 13 China-Nepal talks main aim is Nepali recognition of Chinese sovereignty in Tibet. [NY]

SEP 20 General Chang Kuo-hua tries to deflect reports of Chinese atrocities by delaying 'reforms'. [MG, 257]

SEP 21 Chang Kuo-hua claims China now adopting go-slow approach to 'reforms' in Tibet. Nepal signs pact with China recognizing Tibet as Chinese territory, abrogating Treaty of 1856. [NY]

SEP 25 Major Nepali concessions to Communists in pact. [NY]

OCT 1 Nehru wires Peking to persuade China to 'allow' Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to attend 2,500th anniversary of Buddha's birth in India. [JA, 45]

OCT 23 International Atomic Energy Agency established by the United Nations. [HE, 647]

NOV 1 China 'permits' Dalai Lama to accept invitation to go to India. [JA, 45]

NOV 6 Eisenhower re-elected, having opposed an international ban on H-bomb testing during the campaign. [HE, 600]

NOV 12 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama visit India. [NY]

NOV 14 First U.N. peacekeeping troops ever arrive at Suez to supervise troop withdrawals. [HE, 648]

NOV 16 More fighting with PLA. [NY]

NOV 27 Roles of Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama in present Government and relations with China described. [NY]

NOV 28 Chinese colonization by massive population transfer, an estimated 5 million Chinese to be sent to Tibet by 1962. [NY]

DEC Gompo Tashi (see his: Four Rivers, Six Ranges) begins organizing Tibetan rebel movement. [MG, 261]

DEC 16 Nehru arrives in U.S. for talks with Eisenhower. [CQ, 261]

DEC 18 Japan joins U.N. [UN]

DEC 19 U.S.S.R. agrees to independent Chinese uranium surveys. [LL, 41]

DEC 20 Nepal press says Tibet monks say PLA bombing of Tibetan village causes 83 casualties. [NY]


1957 U-2 bases in West Germany, Japan, Turkey, Norway and Pakistan allow U.S. to overfly the U.S.S.R., China and Tibet. [GY, 26-27, 30, 142]

JAN 13 Tibetan relations with China described. [NY]

JAN 20 Chou says U.S. urged Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama not to return to Tibet, says Tibet uprisings would be treated the same as Hungarian unrest by Peking. [NY]

FEB China selects Lanchow site bordering Tibet for uranium enrichment plant. [LL, 115]

FEB 6 China sent 50,000 settlers to Tibet for 'reclamation of wastelands'. [NY]

FEB 27 Mao declares Tibetan democratic 'reforms' will be postponed for at least five years. [MG, 258]

APR CIA smuggling Tibetan guerrillas to Guam via India and Thailand for training and air-drop back into Tibet with light arms. PLA counter-attacking with over 150,000 soldiers. [JA, 47]

APR 1 Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa from India. [JA, 47]

MAY 2 Taiwan says Dalai Lama under house arrest near Lhasa. [NY]

MAY 7 U.S. to station first atomic weapons in Far East, to place Matador missiles on Taiwan. [NY]

JUN 18 Peking radio announces tentative plan to withdraw unspecified number of 'cadres' from Tibet, move seen as tactical maneuver. [NY]

JUN 20 U.S. National Security Council discusses Tibet. [JP, 163]

JUN 28 Secretary of State Dulles makes major TV address to nation on U.S. China policy, says China 'took Tibet by force'. [1955-57 FR, III, 558]

JUL Regular rebel meetings begin at Gompo Tashi's house in Lhasa, group named Chushi Gangdrug (Four Rivers, Six Ranges). [MG, 263]

JUL 4 Huge ceremony at Norbulingka dedicating golden throne as ritual offering to Dalai Lama as Precious Protector. [MG, 262]

AUG 1 PLA Gen. Tan Kuan-sen says U.S. engaged in subversive activities with Tibetan refugees. [MG, 260]

AUG 26 U.S.S.R. successfully tests ICBM capable of reaching the U.S. [CQ1, 113] SEP 17 Malaysia joins U.N. [UN]

OCT PLA troops enter India near Tibet-Burma-India trijunction. [FW, 94]

OCT 4 U.S.S.R. launches world's first satellite, Sputnik. [CQ1, 114]

OCT 12 Tibetan press claims China has pulled out 90% of officials and will delay plan to make Tibet a Communist province. [NY]

OCT 15 U.S.S.R. agrees to give China prototype nuclear weapon and missiles, plus technical data. First nuclear processing plants ordered constructed. [LL, 41]

OCT 15 Khrushchev denounces agreement with China to provide means to manufacture nuclear weapons. []

DEC 1 Peking radio says Chinese in Tibet, not Tibetans, target of latest re-education campaign. [NY]

DEC 31 Top secret State Dept. review of U.S. China policy discusses Tibet as a country on par with Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, possibly to be admitted to the U.N. U.S. may negotiate with China to foster split with U.S.S.R. [1955-57 FR, III, 669]


JAN Gompo Tashi learns from rebels meeting with Dalai Lama's chamberlain Phala that Kashag could not support overt resistance and Dalai Lama opposed to violent opposition. CIA tells him no U.S. support unless Tibetan Government asks. [MG, 268]

JAN 8 Li Jue, once deputy commander and chief of staff of Tibet Military Region, assigned to top-secret Nuclear Weapons Bureau as design group leader. [LL, 140]

MAR 19 China approves funds for rebuilding bombed monasteries. Security and control tightened with visit of party central committee delegation. [NY]

APR 9 Nehru accepts China invitation to visit Tibet. [NY]

APR 12 PLA troops complain of Tibet duty. [NY]

APR 23 Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama at Lhasa ceremony urge China to speed establishment of regional autonomy, appeal to Mao. [NY]

MAY Foreign Minister Chen Yi says China does not own atomic weapons but would in the future. [1961 CR, 21061]

MAY 31 Deng Xiaoping approves Lanzhou uranium enrichment siting. Plant leaders have ties to his Army unit. [LL, 116]

JUN Chushi Gangdrug base at Drigu Thang in Lhoka has over 5,000 fighters. [MG, 269]

JUN 2 Sen. Humphrey says U.S. detected a nine-kiloton underground explosion in China in Dec. 1956, a possible atomic test. [NY]

JUN 13 First Chinese atomic reactor begins operation. [CQ1, 115]

JUN 16 Founding of the National Volunteer Defense Army (Tensung Tangla Magar) or NVDA, Tibet's resistance movement. [JA, 48]

JUN 16 Chushi Gangdrug official inauguration. [MG, 269]

JUN 27 Peking announces victory over minorities in Xinjiang. [CQ1, 116]

JUL China decides to site nuclear weapons research and design facility, Ninth Academy, in Amdo (Qinghai) near Xining. [LL, 142]

JUL 4 Nehru may visit Tibet in September. [NY]

JUL 5 Peking denounces Xinjiang nationalism. [CQ1, ]

JUL 22 Central Military Commission conference produces guidelines for making Chinese nuclear weapons. [LL, 70]

JUL 22 China approves plan to liberate Taiwan. [CQ1, 116]

JUL 28 Nehru cancels plans to visit Tibet. [NY]

JUL 31 Khrushchev arrives in Peking for four-day visit. [CQ1, 116]

AUG According to Gromyko's Memoirs, Mao asks U.S.S.R. to agree to Chinese plan to lure U.S. troops into Chinese heartland to be attacked with Soviet atomic bomb, but the Soviets refuse. []

AUG Chushi Gangdrug force of 500 ambushed on way to Tibetan Government arsenal at Shang Ganden Choekor. Three-day battle costs 200 PLA and 40 rebel lives. [MG, 269]

AUG 2 Nepal press describes revolt against PLA troops. Many Tibetans flee. [NY]

AUG 3 Increased attacks on Chinese. Tibetans deny full-scale revolt. India has no comment. [NY]

AUG 6 Mass revolt and killings are exaggerated, but Tibetan resistance is strong. [NY]

AUG 10 Secret team sent from Henan province to search for atomic bomb test site in Gansu and Xinjiang. [LL, 175]

AUG 23 China resumes shelling of Quemoy and Tan islands, the U.S. sends six aircraft carriers to the region and supplies nuclear-capable howitzers to Nationalists on Quemoy. [CQ1, 116]

AUG 26 Dalai Lama warning on secret Nationalist agents. [NY]

AUG 31 U.S.S.R. announces it will support China over Taiwan issue. [CQ1, 116]

SEP 4 China proclaims 12-mile limit thereby blocking U.S. convoys to Quemoy, Matsu and other islands. U.S. says 3-mile limit will continue to be recognized. Sec. of State Dulles says U.S. will use force to defend Taiwan. [CQ1, 116]

SEP 6 Chou offers resumption of talks with U.S. [CQ1, 117]

SEP 8 Eisenhower receives Khrushchev letter saying an attack on China would be considered an attack on the U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 117]

SEP 9 Dulles indicates U.S. may make concessions over crisis. [CQ1, 117]

SEP 15 Sino-American ambassadorial talks open on Taiwan crisis. [CQ1, 117]

SEP 20 Nehru welcomed by Chinese officials at Yatung on way to Bhutan. [NY]

SEP 29 U.S.S.R.-China accord on scale and timing of nuclear assistance. [LL, 41]

OCT 3 Nehru admits unrest in Tibet. [NY]

OCT 12 Khampas cut main road to China. [NY]

OCT 19 Khampas cut road to China. [NY]

NOV 1 National Security Affairs advisor Gordon Gray requests clarification of U.S. policy from National Security Council on uprisings against China. [JP, 161]

NOV 13 Sec. of State Dulles says China is a vast slave state. [CQ1, 119]

NOV 24 Nepal envoy to Tibet Col. Basneyet en route to Lhasa. [NY]

DEC China establishes atomic bomb test site search station at Turpan in Xinjiang. [LL, 176]

DEC 14 India press reports successes of Khampas against PLA. [NY]

DEC 20 Nepal says Khampas entering that country. [NY]


1959 CIA-holding company Pacific Corporation reorganizes Civil Air Transport as Air America. [SS, 153-154]

1959 Japanese source reports small atom blast near Lanzhou. [1961 CR, 21061]

JAN Main Chinese base at Tsethang has more than 10,000 PLA troops. [MG, 273]

JAN 2 Peking radio says Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama pledge to make Tibet a Chinese Communist state in statement to Mao. [NY]

JAN 4 Nationalist China aide says anti-Communist revolt spreading in Tibet. [NY]

JAN 22 Classified memo from CIA Director Dulles to Eisenhower on covert actions in Tibet. [JP, 161]

FEB Small and only CIA arms drop to rebels in Lhoka. [MG, 273]

FEB 8 4,000 rebels begin march to PLA Tsethang base. [MG, 273]

FEB 11 Rebels, joined by monks from Sera, Ganden and Drepung, begin siege of Tsethang, securing all of Lhoka and points from Lhasa to the Tsangpo. [MG, 273]

FEB 13 Detailed events through March 25th are found in Barber's From the Land of Lost Content. [NB]

FEB 18 Nepalese ousted from Tibet. [NY]

FEB 24 Nehru confirms China occupies Indian territory in Uttar-Pradesh. [NY]

MAR China's atomic bomb test site headquarters ordered to Turpan from Dunhuang. [LL, 177]

MAR 1 Dalai Lama invited to attend future theatrical performance at Chinese military compound at Lhasa. [JA, 49]

MAR 1 Dalai Lama passes final exams (Doctor of Metaphysics). [NY]

MAR 2 New Delhi Statesman says coup will occur in Lhasa and Dalai Lama will flee on March 17th. [JP, 162]

MAR 3 Classified memo from Dulles to Eisenhower on covert actions in Tibet. [JP, 161]

MAR 5 Dalai Lama's procession to Norbulingka. [MG, 282]

MAR 7 Gen. Tan asks Dalai Lama to set date for attendance at show to be held at PLA headquarters in Lhasa. [JA, 50]

MAR 8 Dalai Lama refuses invitation to visit China under fear he will be held hostage until uprisings end. [NY]

MAR 9 Dalai Lama's bodyguard informed by PLA that Dalai Lama would enter PLA camp unguarded and unattended. Peking Radio announces Dalai Lama will be attending upcoming Chinese National Assembly meeting, although he has not agreed to attend. [JA]

MAR 10 30,000 Tibetans surround Dalai Lama's summer residence at Norbulingka and force announcement canceling visit to PLA camp. Thousands rally against Chinese occupation in Lhasa. United Amdo-Kham-Central Tibet rebel movement destroys 17-point agreement of 1951. [JA, 50]

MAR 11 PLA masses heavy artillery around Lhasa. New Tibetan popular government declares independence from China. [JA, 51]

MAR 12 Women of Lhasa openly declare independence of Tibet to PLA troops. [JA, 53]

MAR 15 PLA troops maneuver near Norbulingka on scouting mission, but hundreds of Tibetan troops on guard hold their fire. [JA, 53]

MAR 16 Tibet Government learns of Chinese artillery movements. [D1, 192]

MAR 16 General Dan and collaborator Ngabo send letters to Dalai Lama indicating PLA would begin shelling the Norbulingka. [JA, 53]

MAR 17 Tibet Government consults with popular uprising leaders on plans to evacuate Dalai Lama. Tibetan army and rebel forces clear route towards the southeast. [D1, 196]

MAR 17 Outbreak of fighting. Dalai Lama secretly escorted out of Norbulingka and south of Lhasa by Tibetan loyalists. (Members of escape party listed [HC, 197]) [JA, 54-56]

MAR 18 Dalai Lama passes Namgyalgang, meets Khampa leader Wangchug Tsering, crosses Che-la and the Tsangpo to Kyeshong, and stays the night at Ra-me monastery. [D1, 202-204]

MAR 19 Dalai Lama travels to Dophu Choekhor, next four days makes way to Chenye, where he hears VOA broadcast report unrest in Lhasa and his whereabouts unknown. [D1, 205]

MAR 19 Public meeting and march by women of Lhasa denouncing Chinese occupation. [MG, 303]

MAR 20 China declares martial law. Norbulingka shelled by PLA and then searched for Dalai Lama. Artillery pounds the Potala, Sera monastery and Chokpori medical college. [JA, 58]

MAR 21 Ramoche Cathedral taken by PLA and Chakpori medical college destroyed. [JA, 59]

MAR 21 London press reports serious fighting in Tibet. Khambas repel Chinese attack on Norbulingka and Tibetans take Chinese military command at Shuktilingka. Tens of thousands of Lhasans take refuge in Central Cathedral. [NB, 159-172]

MAR 21 New Delhi report says Lhasa population joins Khampa rebels in battle. India estimates 50,000 Chinese and 15,000 Tibetans killed in months of fighting. Dalai Lama's whereabouts unknown, his pending arrest linked to revolt. Dag Hammarskjold in Delhi with Nehru. [NY]

MAR 22 Tsuglakhang Cathedral shelled and captured, tens of thousands killed and tens of thousands imprisoned. Ngabo announces Chinese military have taken control of Lhasa. Chinese documents captured in 1966 show 87,000 Tibetans killed in revolt according to China's own count. [JA, 60]

MAR 22 India says communications cut off with Lhasa. Mass demonstrations on 11th, thousands shouting "we are an independent nation!" Revolt began on 13th. India fears influx of refugees. Dalai Lama may seek asylum in Indian Consulate in Lhasa or rebels may ask Nehru for aid. India press condemns China and says revolt is widespread. "Antuk Guonpo-Tashi" a trader from "Litang" identified as rebel leader. [NY]

MAR 23 India says area near its Consulate in Lhasa is quiet, although the main area of the city is well away to the west. Dalai Lama whereabouts still unknown. Notable Indians concerned for his safety doubt China would risk harming him. Indian press 'regrets' Nehru attitude. [NY]

MAR 23 Dulles letter to Eisenhower on covert action in Tibet. [JP, 161]

MAR 24 Nehru tells Parliament his concern for Dalai Lama, but assures China no interference and asks China to respect Indians and their property. China moving mass of settlers to Tibet. Khampas take Gyantse. Review of India's long history with Tibet and failure of China to respect Tibet autonomy. Tibetans in Kalimpong say revolt is spreading and Dalai Lama safe. 10,000 in India plan to urge Nehru to intercede. Nationalist China weighs support for rebels. U.S.-China ambassadorial meeting in Warsaw. [NY]

MAR 25 Dalai Lama's brother Thubten Jigme Norbu in Seattle says China killed thousands opposed to Communism, that 90% of Tibet resists. Lhasa revolt resumes, some Tibetans in Kalimpong pessimistic. Indian dilemma reported. Chinese silence noted. [NY]

MAR 26 Chinese opened fire in Lhasa on the 10th. Tibetans denounce treaty imposed in 1951, proclaim independence and demand Chinese leave. China confirms revocation of treaty. India says revolt is widespread and Tibet army has joined rebellion. India agents say Lhasa fighting ended. Dalai Lama left Lhasa before uprising. U.K. says Chinese suzerainty over Tibet contingent upon Tibet autonomy. Eisenhower news conference transcript. Kalmuck Buddhists in U.S. protest against China. [NY]

MAR 27 Nationalist China pledges support for rebels should fighting continue. Undersecretary State Herter condemns China saying pact to respect autonomy broken. State Dept. negative on Nationalist statements which might bring accusation U.S. stirred revolt. Dalai Lama among Khampa rebels. Lhasa fighting reported eased. American Buddhists protest against China to U.N., State Dept., Nehru and others. [NY]

MAR 28 Dalai Lama hears Chou radio broadcast the illegal dissolving of the Tibetan Government. Peking claims Dalai Lama has been abducted by rebels against his will. [JA, 58]

MAR 28 Dalai Lama hears Chou while at E-Chhudhogyang, crosses Tag-la and reaches Shopanup and Lhuntse Dzong. [D1, 211]

MAR 28 2,000 dead in Lhasa revolt. India border closed. Lhasa under curfew. Peking radio reports Dalai Lama at-large and say his advisers will be punished. Two Tibetan Cabinet ministers urge cooperation with China. U.S. Buddhists protest at U.N. and welcome Nationalist pledge to help Tibet. Tibetans in New Delhi to plead for Nehru's support. India Parliament divided on issue. Chinese in Tibet urge neutrality for Nepal. Taiwan legislature urges Tibet military aid. [NY]

MAR 28 China claims 4,000 rebel troops taken prisoner by March 23rd. [NB, 180]

MAR 28 U.S. State Dept. says China trying to destroy the historical autonomy of the Tibetan people and accuses it of 'barbarous intervention'. [CQ0, 92]

MAR 29 22-year-old Panchen Lama wires support for China's actions to Mao and Chou. [JA, 222]

MAR 29 Chou En-Lai dissolves Dalai Lama Government and names Panchen Lama as Government head under Chinese military control. PCART reshuffled. China says Lhasa revolt crushed on the 23rd after two days of fighting. U.S. State Dept. says China act "barbarous" against Tibet autonomy in 1951 pact and that Panchen Lama has never been primary religious leader. Panchen Lama called puppet of Chinese since 1948. History of China-Tibet relations and rivalry of Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. China says fighting subsiding throughout country and that Nationalists air-dropped aid to Tibetans, say rebels spread rumors Dalai Lama would be held after theatrical performance. Tibetan authority in Japan says Dalai Lama is with Khampas in S Tibet. Drepung was target of PLA troops. Nationalists say they sent mission to meet with rebel leaders. Tibetan exiles in New Delhi not met officially and wait to ask Nehru aid. Indira Gandhi says India cannot help much. J. Narayan critical of Nehru inaction. Hindu group demands Nehru bring issue to U.N. Tibet profiled. [NY]

MAR 30 Dalai Lama suffers dysentery while at Mangmang near India border. [JA, 60]

MAR 30 Peking radio says PLA troops were ordered to take punitive action against Tibetans. [NB, 160

] MAR 30 China says India allowed revolt leaders to use Kalimpong as plan base, India denies charge. China says rebel leader is former premier Lokongwa now in New Delhi. Lokongwa says revolt was opposition to communist attack on religion. India public opinion builds against China. China only controls area 20-30 miles south of Lhasa. China reports capture of 4,000 Tibetans. Tibetans say 5,000 died in Lhasa uprising. Dalai Lama injured in fall during flight. Peking radio alleges letters show Dalai Lama was abducted from Lhasa and tried to forestall revolt. Chiang Kai-shek calls for aid to Tibet rebels. East Berlin press says 20,000 Khampas fight Chinese. Pravda says 20,000 rebels have been defeated. Demonstrations at Chinese Embassy in New Delhi. [NY]

MAR 31 Dalai Lama enters India and life in exile. [JA, 60-61]

MAR 31 Lhasa still in turmoil. China paratrooping in southern Tibet in effort to capture Dalai Lama. Lhasa diplomats restricted. Nehru tells Parliament: China reneged on autonomy promise, expresses sympathy for Tibetans; questions authenticity of letters of Dalai Lama; reports damage to Lhasa monasteries; says revolt is not new but part of Khampa three-year war; won't be pinned down on refugee policy, but does not foresee large influx from Tibet. Dalai Lama near India border and uninjured, China ordered him taken alive. Panchen Lama wired full support to Peking accepting appointment until return of Dalai Lama and praises China for guidance. Hindus demonstrate in Bombay at China consulate. [NY]

APR 1 Nehru assures Tibet delegation he will act in diplomatic channels, but rules out direct steps. Lokongwa hopes Tibet case goes to U.N. and denies Dalai Lama wrote letters to Chinese military opposing rebels and claiming abduction. Neutral Asian nations upset at Chinese actions in Tibet. India press urges Government aid Tibet. British diplomats say China failed to undermine Dalai Lama. Taiwan legislature urges U.S. action. Ambassador Lodge criticizes China. Lokongwa details conference with Nehru: India will probably grant asylum to Dalai Lama; 50,000 PLA troops searching for him; Tibet monastery Rongbuk under PLA siege. Peking press says PLA has put down uprising in Lhasa area, repeats charge India allowed Kalimpong as spy center, and welcomes Nehru's March 23rd statement that India will not interfere in Tibet. [NY]

APR 2 Menon rebukes China on Kalimpong accusation, blames India communist party, and says India probed China's July 1958 complaints about Kalimpong and found them lacking. PLA forces thousands of Tibetans into labor. China rushes more troops to fight Khampas. Tighter control on Indian consulate in Lhasa. Anxiety rises over safety of Dalai Lama. Peking concedes fighting continues. Thubten Jigme Norbu calls for prayers for Tibet and does not know whereabouts of his brother. Nationalists again urge Taiwan Government to act, Taiwan students offer to join rebels. [NY]

APR 2 U.S. receives from Tibet request for weapons for 30,000 men. U.S. policy is to allow Tibetan refugee problem to pressure India. [JP, 163]

APR 3 Peking radio says Dalai Lama has reached India "under duress," says India officials from Towang to meet him, and warn against outside interference on Tibet. Nehru confirms arrival. Dalai Lama asks for sanctuary. Nehru pleads Parliament restraint and denies China wanted search or move of Lhasa consulate. Dalai Lama has been granted asylum. Press denied permission to meet Dalai Lama. PLA launches major attack southeast of Lhasa using heavy artillery. Nationalists report heavy fighting at Heiho. Thubten Jigme Norbu says Dalai Lama will continue struggle for Tibet. U.N. Secretary General Hammarskjold press conference remarks on Tibet case. AFL-CIO boss Meany urges free world support of Tibet. B.S. Gulani letter warns of Chinese plans to colonize Tibet. [NY]

APR 4 Nehru officially confirms Dalai Lama's arrival and political asylum in statements to Parliament. Lokongwa says the Government of Tibet now resides in exile in India. U.S. State Dept. expresses pleasure at report on Dalai Lama. Dalai Lama's 15-day trek out of Tibet is described, with Chinese planes overhead much of the time. Comments by Vatican, Moscow, Nepalese Congress Party in press. [NY]

APR 5 Panchen Lama arrives at Lhasa under heavy Chinese military escort. [JA, 222]

APR 5 Nehru hopes for good relations with China in news conference, but cannot ignore situation in Tibet. Chiang Kai-shek pledges all possible aid to Tibetans. Indian communists loss of prestige. Battle for control of southeast Tibet, 10,000 Tibetans dead. Taiwan offers refuge to Dalai Lama and its press attacks mainland China. Chairman Weir says SEATO not affected directly. Church World Service supports refugees. China suppresses Tibet for strategic and political reasons. [NY]

APR 6 Nehru says Dalai Lama exercises no political authority, hopes Tibet can regain autonomy, and wants good relations with China while being sympathetic with Tibet. Dalai Lama cheered in Towang. Panchen Lama arrives in Lhasa to replace Dalai Lama as PCART chair. Taiwan press says 10,000 PLA revolt and join rebels in Sikang Province. New Delhi demonstrations against China. U.S.S.R. press blames "imperialist agents" for revolt. Sulzberger lauds Khampas and pans Nehru's neutrality. [NY]

APR 7 Dalai Lama at Towang monastery to meet Menon. World Council of Churches repeats plea for refugee aid. [NY]

APR 7 U.K.'s SEATO representative instructed to play down any resolution on Tibet. [1958-60 FR, XVI, 86]

APR 8 PLA sends 20,000 troops south from Lhasa to battle rebels in Lhoka. [JA, 222]

APR 8 Nehru to discuss Dalai Lama's return to Tibet. Taiwan says revolt widening to Sikang and Tsinghai provinces. [NY]

APR 8 Discussion of Tibet at SEATO meeting in New Zealand. U.S. delegation instructed to strongly condemn Chinese Communists. [1958-60 FR, XVI, 84]

APR 9 PCART begins process of partitioning Tibet and placing total political control under the military. [JA, 223]

APR 9 Dalai Lama followers name provisional Government in Tibet to fight for independence, issue manifesto and appeals to India for recognition and mediation of war. Peking confirms resistance continues in Panchen Lama statement. Dalai Lama en route to Bomdila. Peking publishes letters from Dalai Lama in Lhasa saying "reactionary evil elements" endanger him. Washington observers cite Peking statements and see end to revolt. [NY]

APR 10 Peking radio admits Tibetan rebellion active in Lhasa. [NB, 160]

APR 10 Taiwan says 200,000 fighting PLA in Sikang and Szechuan. India press says battles in Tsinghai and Sikang. Chamdo cut off, PLA convoys ambushed by Khampas who are short of supplies and arms. Nehru rejects demands to open India to refugees. Panchen Lama leaves Lhasa for Peking. Ceylon official attacks China. [NY]

APR 11 Peking says Sikang rebels fighting since 1952, admits Tibetan revolt cannot be defeated in short term. Rebels hiding in mountain bases. Dalai Lama arrives at Bomdila. Indian U.N. delegate Jha comments on effect of China action for other Asian nations. [NY]

APR 12 U.K. MP Brockway plan suggests Asian nations jointly push China on autonomy issue. Puppet regime in Tibet urges cooperation with China. Taiwan press reports Mongolian rebels supply Tibetans with arms. Pres. Eisenhower confers with CIA director Dulles on Tibet. [NY]

APR 13 Panchen Lama feasted in China. Dalai Lama greeted in Bomdila by Buddhists and Menon. U.S. Sen. Mansfield urges U.S. recognition of Dalai Lama Government-in-exile. American Emergency Committee for Tibetan Refugees formed. Professor's letter to NYT says Tibet part of China. [NY]

APR 14 Dalai Lama to reside at Musoorie, invited to U.S. by Marchais Center (NY). Burmese official says China should allow Tibet total independence. [NY]

APR 14 Nepal Foreign Ministry says Chinese forces damaged Nepal Consulate in Lhasa. [NB, 177]

APR 15 Panchen Lama hailed in Peking, Chou says revolt basically put down. Media flocks to Tezpur India to meet Dalai Lama. [NY]

APR 15 Sec. of State Dulles resigns due to cancer. [CQ1, 120]

APR 16 PLA siege of Tibetan monasteries. [NY]

APR 17 A.W. Harriman and Rep. Bowles oppose U.S. recognition of Tibetan Government-in-exile. PLA setback in Nagartse, new offensive in southeast Tibet. China says Tibetans increasingly oppose revolt. [NY]

APR 18 Panchen Lama at People's Political Consultative Conference in Peking. [NY]

APR 19 Dalai Lama statement at Tezpur: China broke all promises on autonomy; broke 1951 pact; he left Tibet freely; 10,000 Lhasans kept him from attending theater show at PLA camp from fear he would be made captive. Chou En-lai claims: Dalai Lama was abducted to India; only 20,000 Tibetans rebelled and were defeated; welcomes Nehru on non-interference; Tibet now under control of Chinese PCART which was welcomed by Tibetans and pledges social reforms; hopes India relations continue good. New Nepal leader Koirala says no rift with China over Tibet. Effects of China acts on Asian nations discussed in press, negative effect seen on China. [NY]

APR 20 Thousands go to Siliguri to see Dalai Lama. Indian press attack China. [NY]

APR 21 Rebel leader Gompo Tashi orders rebel NVDA to leave Lhoka district after successfully guarding Dalai Lama's escape route and under strong PLA attack. [JP, 163]

APR 21 Nehru tells Parliament Dalai Lama not free to conduct political affairs, refutes Chinese charge that rebellion was organized from Kalimpong. Dalai Lama arrives in Musoorie. Peking attacks his Tezpur statement and repeats claim he was abducted. Panchen Lama says Tezpur statement not freely given. India responds to Chou claim that border needed clarification by saying it is well defined and not subject to negotiation. [NY]

APR 21 Herter sworn as new Sec. of State. [CQ1, 120]

APR 22 Panchen Lama joint chair at National People's Congress in Peking. Dalai Lama begins residence in exile. Sherpas claim PLA troops attack Nepal villages in pursuit of rebels. [NY]

APR 23 Possible NSC meeting agenda item of CIA training for Tibetans at Camp Hale, Colorado. [JP, 163]

APR 23 Menon denies Indian Government role in Tezpur statement. Dalai Lama reasserts freedom of his statement. Nehru denies Indian consul was arrested in Lhasa revolt. Panchen Lama insists Dalai Lama was and is being held against his will. Nehru tells Parliament China has not replied to Indian protest at new Chinese maps showing large parts of India as Chinese territory. [NY]

APR 24 U.S. Secretary McElroy criticizes China. Peking radio says PLA has broken rebel hold in SE Tibet with 2,000 casualties and sealed off Himalayan border. India deports Prince Peter of Greece for his March 29th statement that India helped China take Tibet in 1950. Nehru meets Dalai Lama in Musoorie. Socialist International in London condemns China. [NY]

APR 25 Nehru confers with Dalai Lama, says first concern is good ties with China, hopes Dalai can return to Tibet some day. Dalai Lama says letters from Lhasa events were genuine but tactic to avoid reprisals by China. Nehru invites any Peking representative to see freedom of Dalai Lama. Peking propaganda campaign against Indian 'expansionists' intensifies. N.Y. Marchais Center offered sanctuary to Dalai Lama. Sulzberger anti-communist piece in NYT. [NY]

APR 26 People's Congress in Peking loudly anti-Indian. India strengthens border on news of new fighting in Lhasa. China bolsters border. [NY]

APR 27 Peking press attacks critics of invasion. PLA planes bomb rebels in southern Tibet as more refugees enter India. [NY]

APR 28 Nehru tells Parliament: China using 'cold war' language; India deplores use of force against Tibet and her loss of autonomy; denies Indian role or designs in Tibet revolt; Chou promised in 1956 that Tibet would not be forced to be communist; hopes to silence India critics. Truman urges Nehru to fight communism. Peking Daily says Dalai Lama will return to Tibet. Opposition to invasion by five Asian nations. [NY]

APR 29 People's Congress in Peking resolves to build a socialist Tibet. Panchen Lama declines Nehru invitation to meet Dalai Lama in India. [NY]

APR 30 NSC meeting discussion on Tibet: Tibetan revolt might pressure India to cooperate with Pakistan. [1958-60 FR, XV, 166]

APR 30 Indian northern border insecure, India may try rapprochement with Pakistan. [NY]

MAY By the end of the month, 3,700 Tibetans are forced into slave labor at Nachen Thang hydroelectric plant east of Lhasa. [JA, 232]

MAY New CIA project to air-drop Tibetan fighters into occupied Tibet to join NVDA troops. [JA, 119]

MAY 1 Peking stirs anti-India feeling. Nehru confers with Nepal's king Mahendra. [NY]

MAY 2 7,000 Tibetans refugees to be housed at Misamari, India. U.S.S.R. quiet on China-India tensions. U.S. State Dept. would not send official invitation to Dalai Lama to come to Marchais Tibet Center. [NY]

MAY 3 China intensifies indoctrination campaign in Tibet. [NY]

MAY 4 President Eisenhower approves NSC action: U.S. should promote India-Pakistan cooperation in light of Tibetan revolt. [1958-60 FR, XV, 166]

MAY 4 Chinese May Day campaign against India continues. [NY]

MAY 5 China admits ferocity and success of Tibetan attacks during revolt. [NB, 177]

MAY 5 Nehru defends grant of asylum to Tibetans, criticizes Chinese acts and accusations. [NY]

MAY 6 Peking radio admits Tibetans directly attacked a PLA base during revolt. [NB, 166]

MAY 6 Eisenhower news conference, expresses sympathy for Nehru, no comment on U.S. aid to India in light of border threat. [NY]

MAY 7 China calls for good relations, says India need not fear Chinese control of Tibet. [NY]

MAY 8 Panchen Lama confers with Mao in Peking. American Emergency Committee sends medical aid to Tibetan refugees in India. [NY]

MAY 9 Nehru attacks China's 'war-like statements', Chinese maps show Indian territory as Chinese, China mistaken in destroying Tibetan social order. [NY]

MAY 10 Indian Congress Party supports Nehru. PLA machine-guns fleeing Tibetans. Nehru asks medical supplies for refugees. [NY]

MAY 11 Many sick and wounded refugees reach Bomdila, estimates total 9,000 refugees. [NY]

MAY 12 U.S.S.R. troops aided China in suppressing revolt. [NY]

MAY 13 Refugees estimated at 11,500. [NY]

MAY 14 Refugees reaching Indian aid station. [NY]

MAY 16 Dalai Lama letter thanks Taiwan for support. [NY]

MAY 17 Dalai Lama asks Buddhists to pray for Tibetans. [NY]

MAY 18 Indian Ambassador to U.N. Jha says India will remain non-aligned. [NY]

MAY 19 Indian outcry on Tibet waning. [NY]

MAY 20 Photos of Dalai Lama. [NY]

MAY 22 Dalai Lama acknowledges invitation from Marchais Center. [NY]

MAY 23 Dalai Lama celebrates 2,503rd anniversary of Buddha's birth. [NY]

MAY 24 H. Harrer article on Tibet under Chinese rule. Report on refugee needs. [NY]

MAY 25 India puzzled at presence of seven PLA troopers with Tibetan refugees at Misamari. [NY]

MAY 26 NSC discusses U.S.-South Asia policy: U.S. might use Tibet revolt to strengthen India-Pakistan cooperation. [1958-60 FR, XV, 3]

MAY 26 Panchen leaves Peking for Tibet. [NY]

MAY 30 China building air bases in Tibet. [NY]

MAY 31 Peking radio says 515 Tibetans held since March are released. A.F.S.C. seeks aid for refugees. [NY]

JUN 1 Taiwan says 2,600 PLA killed in May 22nd battle southwest of Lhasa. [NY]

JUN 3 Advertisement asks Americans for aid to refugees. [NY]

JUN 6 Indian lawyer B. Trikamdas sees evidence of genocide against Tibetans. International Commission of Jurist's investigation shows 65,000 Tibetans killed. China has systematic policy to destroy Tibetan Buddhism. Artillery destruction of Dalai Lama's summer residence in Lhasa. [NY]

JUN 7 Dalai Lama says Tibet under torture. Peking denounces I.C.J. findings. [NY]

JUN 13 First meeting of China's nuclear weapons test base committee. [LL, 177]

JUN 13 Nehru condemns nations not practicing 'peaceful coexistence' meaning China. [NY]

JUN 15 Joint India-Nepal statement at end of Nehru visit says no country should be dominated by another. [NY]

JUN 19 U.S. ambassador to India Bunker says India will not divert from non-alignment in spite of very strong reaction to Tibetan events. [1958-60 FR, XV, 173]

JUN 20 U.S.S.R. secretly tells China its nuclear assistance pact suspended for two years. [LL, 71]

JUN 21 Dalai Lama news conference: China engaging in genocidal campaign against Tibetan race and culture; 1951 pact was forced on Tibet and broken by China; he wants to aid rebels in peaceful means. India questions 30 Chinese among refugees. [NY]

JUN 22 Tibetan statesman Tsarong Sawang dies in Chinese prison. Nepal consul cannot visit eight Nepalese imprisoned by China in Tibet. [NY]

JUN 24 Dalai Lama talks with Indian socialist leader J. Narayan, who backs Tibet self-government. [NY]

JUL 1 India won't recognize Dalai Lama as head of Tibet Government. Peking claims new program for 'reforms' and land redistribution targeting monasteries and temples. Loyalty to Dalai Lama to be punished. [NY]

JUL 6 Dalai Lama opposes rebel violence. [NY]

JUL 7 Due to Chinese suppression of Tibet, Burma decides to accept U.S. aid after six-year ban. [NY]

JUL 8 International Commission of Jurists to probe human rights abuses in Tibet. Nehru doubts U.N. can resolve Tibet crisis as Communist China not a member, he reasserts Dalai Lama not head of Tibet Government. [NY]

JUL 11 Narayan urges U.N. debate, opposes Indian policy. [NY]

JUL 12 Peking publishes English language book justifying Tibet invasion. Asian nations cool to China after repression of Tibet. [NY]

JUL 14 Refugees being slowly resettled in Himalayas, Sikkim, Bhutan, but most relief aid is coming from U.S. CARE director Meeker seeks U.S. interest in Tibetan scholars. [NY]

JUL 16 Denver Post reports Camp Hale re-opening for unspecified 'atomic tests' (covert training of Tibetans in U.S.). [JP, 164]

JUL 21 I.C.J. urges U.N. investigation of genocide evidence. Indian socialists say China intends to undermine and annex Himalayan border states. [NY]

JUL 26 First large-scale thamzing, or struggle sessions, begun in Lhasa as public show trials of important prisoners. [JA, 228-230]

AUG 6 Khampa weapons seized at Nepal border. Nepal fears communist infiltration. [NY]

AUG 7 Nehru says China violates spirit of 1954 pact on Tibet. Rebels still active. [NY]

AUG 14 Nehru says China forces in Tibet very large, assumes China accepts McMahon line. [NY]

AUG 17 Rebels kill four PLA soldiers and injure others. [NY]

AUG 19 China has arrested Panchen Lama for organizing uprising. [NY]

AUG 20 Nehru denies Chinese troops in India and occupy Bara Hoti plateau. [NY]

AUG 21 NSC 5909/1 adopts new U.S. policy on South Asia: refers to establishment of "complete Chinese Communist control over Tibet." [1958-60 FR, XV, 36]

AUG 22 Times of India reports two Chinese troop border violations. [NY]

AUG 23 Nepal says 550 Tibetan refugees enter since revolt. International Commission of Jurists Inquiry Committee seeks Chinese permission to enter Tibet to study charges of genocide. [NY]

AUG 24 Bhutan upset at China massing troops on border. Sikkim also threatened. [NY]

AUG 25 Dalai Lama statement: 80,000 Tibetans died in revolt; Panchen Lama arrested; China exterminating Tibetans and using torture. Menon says situation in Tibet getting worse. Nehru confirms China controlling pilgrims. [NY]

AUG 26 Nehru will defend Bhutan and Sikkim if invaded by China. [NY]

AUG 27 Assam denies incursion by PLA troops at Nathu La. [NY]

AUG 28 Australian MP Haworth and Austrian MP Sturgkh condemn Chinese occupation of Tibet. Times of India reports India-China border clash. American Bar Association deplores Chinese actions and urges U.N. inquiry. [NY]

AUG 29 Nehru confirms Chinese border attack, that many have happened in past and India will defend her borders. U.S. officials study situation. Congressmen urge U.N. action. [NY]

AUG 29 CIA approves design for SR-71, advanced generation of U-2 spy plane for continuing overflights of China. [GY, 42]

AUG 30 India militarizes Tibet border guard and will press PLA withdraw from Longju. 40,000 PLA troops on Tibetan border. Pres. Eisenhower concerned. [NY]

AUG 31 Dalai Lama appeals to U.N. and non-communist nations to support Tibet and says conditions worsening. Indian and Chinese representatives clash in Cairo at Asian-African Conference. U.N. observers say Dalai Lama hopes for Security Council action. [NY]

SEP-OCT Hundreds of Tibetan prisoners from the Norbulingka transported by China to Golmo prison labor camps. [JA, 233]

SEP According to a 24 July 1992 Senate Memo, a U.S. State Department spokesman says the U.S. has never recognized Chinese Communist sovereignty over Tibet. []

SEP China imprisons 3,000 Tibetans, mostly monks from Sera and Drepung monasteries, at Drapchi Prison. [JA, 304]

SEP 1 400 PLA troops hold Bhutan territory. U.S. supports Dalai Lama effort and is concerned for Bhutan. Nehru rejects proposal to bomb Chinese road in Ladakh. Incursions in Siang and Lohat areas of Northeast Frontier. [NY]

SEP 2 Indian ambassador in U.S. says ties with China do not mean India will allow border violations. Dalai Lama in New Delhi plans world tour for Tibetan independence. Indian press reports more border incursions by PLA. [NY]

SEP 3 Dalai Lama confers with Nehru. U.S. Navy units on alert. Yugoslavia condemns Chinese aggression. [NY]

SEP 4 PLA incursions into India, Sikkim and Bhutan continue. Indian troops posted at Nathu La and Jelap La. Dalai Lama confers with representatives of many nations. [NY]

SEP 5 Nehru statements: China blames India for border aggression; India won't be bullied; defeats Parliament move to urge U.N. action on Chinese occupation of Tibet; U.N. debate will not help Tibetans; wants friendship with China. China invades three areas of Ladakh and holds Minsar. [NY]

SEP 6 Dalai Lama to ask U.N. Secretary General Hammarskjold to hear Tibet issue and will send Tibetan representatives to U.N. to urge consideration of El Salvador's 1950 motion. Chinese actions divisive at U.S.-U.S.S.R. talks. [NY]

SEP 7 U.S. may talk with Khrushchev on Chinese moves during upcoming U.S. visit. [NY]

SEP 8 Nehru reports to Parliament on border dispute and differs with Dalai Lama on appeal to U.N. Chou En-lai repudiates McMahon line. [NY]

SEP 9 Full text of Dalai Lama's letter to U.N. Secretary General. [D1, 253-255]

SEP 9 India disputes Dalai Lama on status of Tibet by asserting it is part of China. [NY]

SEP 10 Chou statements: denies aggression; disputes McMahon line or Ladakh boundaries; Britain to blame for past expansion towards Tibet; China recognizes India as protector of Bhutan and Sikkim. Dalai Lama makes formal plea to U.N. for immediate aid and says China not only invaded Tibet but brutalizes Tibetans. U.S.S.R. deplores border situation. Britain denies Chou allegation. Times of India says PLA attack on August 25th at Longju confirmed. [NY]

SEP 11 U.S. backs Dalai Lama at U.N., but still claims Chinese 'suzerainty' over Tibet. Nehru urges peaceful settlement of border dispute. [NY]

SEP 12 Chou urges peaceful settlement of border. Dalai Lama's brother Thupten Jigme Norbu reports to U.N. representative Lindt on refugees. [NY]

SEP 13 India reinforces border again, concedes Eastern Ladakh border is unsettled, but still asserts McMahon line as legal boundary. Dalai Lama's brother Gyalo Thondup to go to U.N. Anti-India rallies in Chinese cities. [NY]

SEP 14 Vice Pres. Nixon says Khrushchev approves Chinese aggression as power play in U.S. visit, but Sen. Mansfield says U.S.S.R. urged China to settle border. Chen Yi says China never accepted McMahon line, that Dalai Lama breaking conditions of asylum not to be political. Committee of One Million urges U.N. aid to Tibetans. Nehru confers with U.S.S.R. Ambassador Benediktov and with Dalai Lama. [NY]

SEP 16 Bhutan to build roads to India to counter China threat. [NY]

SEP 17 Chinese communist party press urges India halt Dalai Lama actions. [NY]

SEP 18 Secretary Herter and Secretary Lloyd oppose China at U.N. [NY]

SEP 19 Nepal says PLA troops cross northern border. [NY]

SEP 20 Indian opposition to Chinese admission to U.N. noted as new policy. [NY]

SEP 21 Taiwan says rebel leader Chama Ngawang in Taipei for report to Chiang Kai-shek. [NY]

SEP 22 U.S. Asst. Secretary Robertson says at U.N. that China killed thousands of Tibetans. Ireland and Britain join criticism. PLA troops in Sikkim in pursuit of rebels, 15,000 PLA troops on border. [NY]

SEP 23 Panchen Lama leaves for Peking. New rebel attack in Lhasa. Secretary Herter sees appeal to U.N. [NY]

SEP 24 50,000 rebels in new fighting against PLA. Chinese atrocities described. [NY]

SEP 25 NSC 5913/1 adopts U.S. policy on the Far East: Tibet mentioned as a fait accompli and not enumerated as an independent nation. [1958-60 FR, XVI, 134]

SEP 25 Irish Minister Aiken urges Asian and African nations to back U.N. resolution against China. [NY]

SEP 26 Marshall Chu Teh celebrates Panchen Lama in Peking. [NY]

SEP 27 Gyalo Thondup departs India for U.N. talks. [NY]

SEP 28 PLA troops take more Indian territory and take goods near Uttar Pradesh. 1,044 refugees cross into Nepal since March revolt. Ireland and Malaya to urge U.N. debate on Tibet. Taiwan will not oppose debate. [NY]

SEP 29 India builds 70-mile road to Niti Pass near area claimed by China. Ireland and Malaya move Tibet issue to agenda. India publishes a new political map of border with Tibet, says 40,000 square miles are disputed with China holding a million people. Nehru critical again of China. [NY]

SEP 30 Khrushchev warns China not to use force. [LL, 72]

OCT 1 Nepal reports PLA incursions. [NY]

OCT 2 Albania opposes U.N. talks on Tibet. [NY]

OCT 5 Nehru letter to Chou demands PLA withdraw from Indian land prior to border talks. Nepal to post border troops. [NY]

OCT 6 Malaya minister attacks Chinese colonialism in Tibet, Gyalo Thondup arrives at U.N. [NY]

OCT 7 U.S.S.R. U.N. representative says plot behind so-called Tibet question. Menon says China must pull back troops before border talks. Pakistan sees new Chinese maps showing Pakistani-held Kashmir areas as part of China. Sulzberger says China acted out of fear of a hostile Tibet Government. [NY]

OCT 8 Chou down-plays differences in response to Nehru. Aiken of Ireland replies to Kuznetsov of U.S.S.R. [NY]

OCT 9 Gyalo Thondup news conference: U.N. mediation with China is Tibet's only hope. Nehru says India will resist further Chinese advances into India. [NY]

OCT 10 U.N. votes debate on Chinese violation of human rights. [NY]

OCT 11 Communist opposition to debate on Tibet. [NY]

OCT 12 Gyalo Thondup statements: appeals to Asian and African nations to support Tibet; U.S.S.R. misrepresents issues; asks U.N. help to restore 1914-51 status of Tibet. Menon cites Chinese border incursions. [NY]

OCT 13 U.N. General Assembly votes to discuss Tibet. India listed as not voting. Draft resolution notes grave concern for human and religious freedom in Tibet. Dalai Lama pleased by U.N. action. China continues to restrict border traffic with India and Kashmir into Tibet. [NY]

OCT 15 Panchen Lama claims Tibet undergoing democratic reforms. China attacks U.N. interference. Gyalo Thondup news conference, says China turning Tibet into major military base. China-India troops face-off at Khinzemane. [NY]

OCT 16 Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base formally established north of Tibet. [LL, 177]

OCT 16 200 U.S.S.R. military and engineering advisors on Tibet border. [NY]

OCT 19 Dalai Lama sets up provisional Government to wage guerilla warfare. Gyalo Thondup describes new regime. [NY]

OCT 21 Aiken urges China to negotiate with the Dalai Lama. U.S., Malaya, New Zealand, Pakistan, and Latin American nations support Tibet resolution. India says 100 refugees enter in past two months. Chinese survey beyond Sikkim and Bhutan borders. PLA troops withdraw from Longju outpost. [NY]

OCT 22 U.N. votes 45-9 to express grave concern over human rights abuses in Tibet. U.S. votes yes, U.K. abstains in puzzling display of doubt over her recognition of Tibet as an independent nation. India likewise does not support Tibet. Panchen Lama says U.S. interferes in Tibet. Pakistan says it will defend borders but at present has no dispute with China. [NY]

OCT 24 India says 17 killed in border fight 40 miles inside southern Ladakh. China blames India for attacks and accuses U.S. of pressuring for U.N. vote interfering in internal affairs. Pakistani President says China road-building is military threat to India and Pakistan. Gyalo Thondup and Thubten Jigme Norbu praise aid to refugees. [NY]

OCT 25 Nehru again warns China, acknowledges new fighting in Ladakh where snowfall halts Indian move to reinforce troops. U.S. Undersecretary of State Dillon deplores Chinese aggressiveness. Nepal says 1,607 refugees enter since March. [NY]

OCT 26 Malaya denies following U.S. and U.K. line in U.N. debate on Tibet. Growing Indian anger over Chinese actions in press. India shifts troops to northern frontier. [NY]

OCT 27 China claims Indian patrol fired on PLA in Ladakh, has ten captives and nine bodies in offer to return. [NY]

OCT 28 India accepts offer. PLA troops at Chushul airstrip built by India. [NY]

OCT 29 China agrees to negotiate with Nepal on Tibet border. Nehru's staunch path of nonalignment. [NY]

OCT 30 Neutralist Asian nations criticize Peking actions. [NY]

OCT 31 China demands larger territory in Northeast frontier of India, says troops will enter unless India cedes large area. [NY]

NOV 1 Indian army takes direct control of frontier with Tibet. Khrushchev hopes for peaceful settlement of crisis. Lowell Thomas, Jr.'s book Silent War in Tibet reviewed. [NY]

NOV 2 India prepares for war with China in defense of border with Tibet. [NY]

NOV 3 Indian army enters areas claimed by China. [NY]

NOV 5 India restates demand that China withdraw troops prior to talks. [NY]

NOV 6 Nehru downplays possible war with China, hopes to discuss situation with Pres. Eisenhower during his visit to India. [NY]

NOV 8 PLA planning stay through winter in Ladakh. [NY]

NOV 9 Khrushchev in Peking says disputed area remote and of no value, hopes for peaceful settlement. India officially notifies China that border situation is critical, repudiates Chinese statement of October 26th. [NY]

NOV 10 Chou proposes conference with Nehru and plan which would cede large area of Ladakh to China. Indira Gandhi attacks Chinese plan, sees threat to Bhutan. Nehru says plan to China advantage. [NY]

NOV 11 Nehru rejects Chinese territorial claims. China massing troops in Tibet on Sikkim and Nepal borders. India seeks helicopters to patrol frontier. [NY]

NOV 12 Border dispute to be major topic of Nehru-Eisenhower talks. Nehru sees armed force may be necessary since China has increased claims to Indian territory. Ladakh anti-Chinese. [NY]

NOV 13 U.S. Secretary Herter news conference: U.S. has no position on border dispute; U.S. has insufficient evidence on which to decide issue; presumes India correct; later condemns Chinese use of force. Chou set to exchange McMahon line for land in Ladakh. Indians upset at U.S. position. [NY]

NOV 14 China confiscates monastic lands in Tibet. Herter tries to assure India that he did not intend to show U.S. support for Chinese aggression. China prepared to release captive Indians. Former President Truman says Nehru wants peace. [NY]

NOV 15 Dalai Lama with International Commission of Jurists repeats that China is killing Tibetans. I.C.J. holding hearings with refugees in New Delhi. India puzzled and surprised at Herter statements on U.S. policy. China releases captives and remains of dead Indians. [NY]

NOV 16 Herter statement published widely in India. Parliament to debate border issue. [NY]

NOV 17 Nehru issues White Paper on territorial claims, rejects Chou plan. [NY]

NOV 18 Dalai Lama seeks talk with Eisenhower. China built airbase in occupied Ladakh. [NY]

NOV 19 China increases propaganda on Chou plan. Nehru rejects talks until PLA withdrawal. Dorji of Bhutan supports Indian stance. [NY]

NOV 20 Nehru says violation of Bhutan and Sikkim would be declaration of war, says Nepal sympathetic to India, and denies Chinese airbases at Chushul or Ladakh. China again says U.S. hampers settlement. [NY]

NOV 21 Nehru rejects Chou plan before Parliament, suggests mutual withdrawal with China going first. 40,000 square miles at issue. [NY]

NOV 22 Nehru calls up reserve forces. China not likely to back down. [NY]

NOV 23 Tito upset at Chinese actions, supports Nehru. [NY]

NOV 24 China claims it allowed Dalai Lama to escape even though it could have killed him. [NY]

NOV 25 Nehru calls for national unity in Parliament, says he will try to avoid war but is prepared for conflict. [NY]

NOV 28 India restricts Chinese in Kalimpong and watches 10,000 Chinese in India. Nehru pledges to defend Nepal. [NY]

NOV 29 Nehru sees crisis near. [NY]

DEC By month's end slave labor population at Nachen Thang hydro plant up to 8,000. [JA, 232]

DEC 2 PLA moves into three important areas of Nepal. [NY]

DEC 3 Eisenhower news conference: he will discuss border situation with Nehru. [NY]

DEC 4 U.N. Security Council asked to preserve Kashmir frontier and halt India-China split of Ladakh. [NY]

DEC 6 Nepal hopes for peaceful settlement as friend to both India and China. U.S. officials press Dalai Lama not to meet with Eisenhower, claim India would be embarrassed. [NY]

DEC 7 Disguised Chinese agents in Nepal. [NY]

DEC 9 Nehru sees long-term crisis and need for military readiness. [NY]

DEC 11 U.S. Rep. Judd says Tibetan refugees in good shape but need long-term aid. Menon says India has asked China to halt violations of airspace. [NY]

DEC 12 Eisenhower links Chinese threat to availability of U.S. forces. [NY]

DEC 13 U.S.-India ties strengthened due to Chinese acts. [NY]

DEC 14 Eisenhower did not discuss military aid to India with Nehru. [NY]

DEC 15 Gen. Chang Kuo-hua says resistance in Tibet only handful of reactionaries. [NY]

DEC 16 Heavy PLA troop concentrations along Nepal-Tibet border. [NY]

DEC 19 Chou proposes December 26th meeting with Nehru, holds to Chinese claim to part of Ladakh. U.S.S.R. embarrassed by Chinese actions and hopes East-West tensions won't be stressed. [NY]

DEC 21 Nehru says favorable Indian reception of Eisenhower due in part to border dispute, sees long crisis. [NY]

DEC 22 Nehru rejects Chou offer but Parliament overrules and begins debate. Chinese in Calcutta loyal to India seek exemption from restrictions. Chinese military advantage described. Nepal reports two border incursions by PLA. [NY]

DEC 23 Nehru rejects plan to oust Chinese from Eastern Ladakh by force, says war would last indefinitely and backs talks. [NY]

DEC 24 China pressures Nepal on defense pact. [NY]

DEC 25 New PLA troops massing on Tibet border. [NY]

DEC 27 Nepal says no invasion, but Chinese have infiltrated agents into Nepal and massed troops in Tibet. [NY]

DEC 30 New Chou letter to Nehru. Nepal to aid Tibetans in Kathmandu valley. Head lama of Rongbuk monastery escapes with his brother after battle with PLA troops. [NY]


1960 Tibetans establish guerilla base at Mustang in Nepal. [D3, 191]

1960 CIA-trained team equipped with radio is air-dropped into Qinghai province from Thailand to report on local resistance movement. [TP, 48]

1960 Bird Air begins supporting U.S. covert actions in Asia, including those involving opium. Operations chief R.L. Brongersma has flown secret airdrops into Tibet with the CIA's CAT. [SS, 157]

JAN Chinese Politburo decides to build atomic weapons without foreign assistance. [LL, 121]

JAN 2 13,000 Tibetan refugees in India. [NY]

JAN 3 Review of Frank Moraes' book The Revolt in Tibet. [NY]

FEB Secretary of State Herter strongly asserts U.S. support for Tibetan self-determination. []

FEB Construction begins on plutonium reactor at Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex north of Amdo in Gansu. [LL, 111]

FEB 1 First Tibetan refugees arrive at Bylakuppe in Mysore state, India. [D3, 159]

FEB 4 Probable NSC discussion of Tibet covert plans from earlier 5412 Group meeting on Tibet attended by Eisenhower, Gray, Herter, Dulles, Cabell, and D. FitzGerald. [JP, 165]

FEB 5 Dalai Lama's gold holdings in Calcutta bank. [NY]

FEB 10 India says 2,611 refugees enter between Nov 1st and Jan 17th. [NY]

FEB 14 France becomes fourth nuclear state with atomic explosion. [HE, 597]

FEB 27 Dalai Lama to spend over $1 million on Tibet relief and supporting Tibet's cause before U.N. [NY]

MAR 1 Dalai Lama thanks U.S. for U.N. support. Herter reply says U.S. backs Tibetan self-determination. [NY]

MAR 5 Dalai Lama selling assets at $1.7 million. [NY]

MAR 6 Peking attacks U.S. position. [NY]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama says Tibetan refugees must concentrate on settlement and preservation of the Tibetan culture. [D3, 159]

MAR 11 India protests to China on treatment of Indians in Tibet. [NY]

MAR 17 Dalai Lama agrees to move Tibetan government to Dharamsala, India. [NY]

APR First generator officially opened at Nachen Thang hydro plant. [JA, 232]

APR Ground-breaking for uranium hexaflouride plant in Gansu. [LL, 103]

APR 10 Afro-Asian Convention on Tibet opens in New Delhi, Dalai Lama describes situation and asks for aid. [NY]

APR 11 Convention charges China with genocide and aggression. [NY]

APR 12 Convention backs Tibetan right to self-determination, China attacks statement. [NY]

APR 15 Dalai Lama may go to U.N. to appeal Tibet's case, praises help from India on refugees. [NY]

APR 21 China begins testing high explosive lenses for atomic implosion device. [LL, 155]

APR 29 Dalai Lama leaves Musoorie for new quarters at Dharamsala. [D3, 161]

APR 30 Full text of Chou press conference in New Delhi including discussion on the Tibetan border. [DW, 396]

MAY 1 CIA U-2 reconnaissance plane downed deep inside U.S.S.R., kills U.S.-U.S.S.R. summit talks in Paris and leads Eisenhower to cancel C-130 supply flights to Tibetan rebels. [JP, 166]

MAY 6 Battle for control of Tibet. [TT]

MAY 12 Mass defection of PLA troops in Tibet. [NY]

MAY 15 Rockefeller Foundation grant to bring Tibetan scholars to U.S. and international centers. [NY]

MAY 17 Opening of Nursery for Tibetan Refugee Children in India. [JA, 94] JUN 1 Herter boasts that in ninety-seven ambassadorial meetings with China, no progress whatsoever has been made. [1958-60 FR, XVI, 192]

JUN 3 Heavy fighting in southern Tibet between rebels and PLA after desecration of monasteries and forced labor. New rebellion in western Tibet. India says reports are exaggerated. [NY]

JUN 4 Tibet vast military camp, Tibetans forced to build roads and airbases. Panchen Lama under military watch and suspicion by Chinese. 3,000 rebels in a southern Tibet battle, 800 deaths. [NY]

JUN 8 Mutiny among PLA troops in Tibet. [NY]

JUN 10 China denies Panchen Lama has left Tibet. [NY]

JUN 11 Tibetans take PLA garrison at Shekar and fight at Saka. [NY]

JUN 15 Many Nepali traders killed by PLA at Shekar. China warns Hindu pilgrims against travel to Tibet holy places. [NY]

JUN 16 Rebels fighting PLA at Nagarjong. [NY]

JUN 20 I.C.J. report: China guilty of genocidal campaign against Buddhism in Tibet; Tibetan children have been kidnapped to China; China has violated Tibetan social and economic rights and has killed many outside of military actions. [NY]

JUN 23 Nepal says PLA losing battle in Parkha area. [NY]

JUN 24 New fighting in Lake Manasarowar area, PLA sends in reinforcements. 1,000 more refugees flee to India. [NY]

JUN 29 China confirms new uprisings. [NY]

JUL China disbands Tibetan administration of Shigatse. [JA, 272]

JUL 11 PLA retakes Shekar Dzong. [NY]

JUL 12 5,000 more refugees flee to Nepal. [NY]

JUL 23 Refugee lama says China starved more than 1,000 lamas to death in concentration camp in 1959. [NY]

JUL 26 PLA massacred 3,000 Tibetans fleeing to Nepal in Mustang area June 25th to 26th. [NY]

AUG Plutonium reactor construction suspended at Jinquan to concentrate efforts at Lanzhou diffusion plant, the "Oak Ridge" of China. [LL, 113]

AUG U.S. Discoverer 14 spy satellite "Corona" opens new era of space surveillance, observing the U.S.S.R. and China systematically beyond the capability of aircraft. [GY, 34] AUG 8 I.C.J. publishes evidence upon which its report of genocide and human rights violations by China was based. [NY]

AUG 21 Malaya and Thailand urge U.N. debate on oppression of Tibetans. [NY]

AUG 23 U.S.S.R. finishes withdrawal of experts aiding Chinese nuclear program. [LL, 72]

AUG 25 U.S. National Reconnaissance Office established in top secret to control spy-satellite operations, including those over Tibet and China. [GY, 142]

SEP 2 First meeting of Commission of Tibetan People's Deputies, birth of the exile government's democratic parliament. [HC, 142]

SEP 2 Full text of Dalai Lama's letter to U.N. Secretary General. [D1, 255-256]

SEP 4 Peking confirms 1,000 Tibetan youths studying Communism. [NY]

SEP 10 China has expelled all U.S.S.R. advisors from Tibet, 300 have left. [NY]

SEP 11 Narayan of India says Dalai Lama may send delegation to U.N. to urge Tibetan self-determination, urges Nehru to speak out on issue of Tibetan freedom under moral obligation. [NY]

SEP 15 Probable discussion of Tibet covert action at 5412 Committee meeting. [JP, 166]

SEP 17 Dalai Lama to send three to U.N. General Assembly with plea for action. [NY]

SEP 23 U.N. decides to discuss Tibet issue, U.S.S.R. opposed, but U.S. supports. [NY]

SEP 25 Panchen Lama to go to Peking. [NY]

SEP 29 Full text of Dalai Lama's letter to U.N. Secretary General documenting Tibetan independence. [D1, 257-263]

SEP 30 3,500 refugees flee to Sikkim recently. [NY]

OCT 2 China disrupts Nepal-Tibet trade. Dalai Lama letter to Hammarskjold urges U.N. to liberate Tibet. [NY]

OCT 11 U.N. General Assembly votes Tibet issue on agenda, U.S.S.R. objects. [NY]

OCT 24 Gyalo Thondup says Asian and African nations studying resolution condemning China and that thousands of Tibetans are dying under forced labor. [NY]

NOV 8 J.J. Singh urges U.N. to condemn China for Tibet oppression. [NY]

NOV 8 Kennedy elected over Nixon. [HE, 600-601]

NOV 19 Prof. Tieh-Tseng Li claims Tibet legal part of China.


DEC CIA estimates China's uranium production at several hundred tons annually from more than ten deposits. [LL, 268]

DEC PLA seizes 4,000 monks o

f Panchen Lama's monastery Tashilhunpo at Shigatse. [JA, 271]

DEC 6 Ireland and Taiwan urge U.N. discuss Tibet. [NY]

DEC 13 U.S. intelligence forecasts Chinese plutonium production by late 1962. [LL, 109]


JAN 12 More than 4,000 fleeing Tibetans killed by PLA troops in Lhasa area. [NY]

FEB 15 Panchen Lama returns to Lhasa after five months in China. [NY]

MAR 7 U.S. supports U.N. debate on human rights in Tibet, U.S.S.R. opposes. [NY]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama urges U.N. to help restore independence for Tibet. [NY]

MAR 12 Taiwan reports Tibetan rebels plan spring offensive. [NY]

MAR 21 Ten Tibetans publicly executed include some Tashilhunpo monks. [JA, 272]

MAR 26 Review of book Tibet is My Country by Thubten Jigme Norbu. [NY]

MAR 27 New U.S. Ambassador to India, John Kenneth Galbraith, briefed on CIA operations in India (perhaps including Tibet) by Richard Bissell. [JP, 167]

MAR 27 Sen. Keating urges U.S. U.N. representative Stevenson to press for Tibet and Hungary on the U.N. agenda. [CR, 4874]

APR 2 Radio Lhasa says Tibet will endure five more years of 'democratic revolution.' [JA, 234]

APR 3 2,000 Khampas killed or captured by PLA troops in western Tibet. [NY]

APR 6 U.S. rejects U.S.S.R. move to end U.N. debate on Tibet. [NY]

APR 12 Malaya, Thailand and Ireland sponsor resolution on human rights and freedoms. [NY]

APR 16 Dalai Lama asks India for more aid for refugees, $1.5 million to date. [NY]

APR 16 Kennedy approves CIA invasion at Bay of Pigs in Cuba despite uproar at U.N. Serious loss of U.S. credibility at U.N. while Tibet issue is pending. [TP, 129-130]

APR 23 Flemming book on U.K. invasion of Tibet in 1904 reviewed. [NY]

MAY 13 Flemming book on U.K. invasion of Tibet in 1904 reviewed again. [NY]

JUN 1,400 of 1,700 prisoners at Drapchi prison have perished from starvation since November of 1960. [JA, 232]

JUL 2 India plan to aid 7,000 Tibetan refugees in Sikkim. [NY]

AUG 13 Swiss take in 16 Tibetan children refugees. [NY]

AUG 19 Tibet issue raised in U.N. by Malaya and Thailand. [NY]

SEP Panchen Lama invited to Peking; thousands of Tibetans dying of starvation; Mao promises to improve the situation, but the Panchen Lama is demoted for speaking out. [JA, 272]

SEP 4 U.S. law prohibits foreign assistance to 'communist' countries; included are the People's Republic of China and Tibet, separately. []

SEP 18 U.N. Secretary General Hammarskjold killed in plane crash. [CQ1, 127]

SEP 23 Chinese nuclear reactors posited at Sian, Chungking, Peking and in Manchuria. ICBM launch site reported at Lanzhou. Times of India reports chain of rocket launch pads along Tibet-Nepal border. [CR, 21061]

SEP 24 8,000-10,000 Tibetan refugees in Nepal. [NY]

SEP 26 U.N. General Assembly votes to debate Tibetan rights over U.S.S.R. opposition. [NY]

OCT 6 Kennedy tells Gromyko that the U.S. has counted the exact number of U.S.S.R.'s ICBMs using spy satellites. (And so could know exact Chinese development.) [GY, 49]

OCT Tibetan Medical Center founded in India by Dr. Yeshi Dhonden, one of only three Lhasa-trained physicians to escape. [JA, 93]

OCT 7 Dalai Lama says China jets gunned 600 refugees. [NY]

OCT 12 September battle in western Tibet, PLA killed 40 Khampas. [NY]

OCT 21 Mongolia joins U.N. [UN]

OCT 26 Swiss pilot project to settle 23 Tibetan refugees. [NY]

NOV 7 Heavy battles between Khampas and PLA troops. [NY]

NOV 17 Guerilla war against Chinese in Tibet. [NY]

NOV 29 Nepal says more refugees enter. [NY]

DEC 1 U.S. U.N. Ambassador Stevenson denounces China for aggression in Tibet, Korea and Vietnam. [CQ1, 128]

DEC 6 Nehru says China wants new treaty on Tibet, 1954 agreement ends June 1962. [NY]

DEC 8 Colorado Springs Gazette reports 47 American citizens held at gunpoint by U.S. Army to preserve secrecy of CIA-training for covert Tibet operation at Camp Hale. Secretary McNamara personally asks New York Times not to print story. [JP, 168]

DEC 14 El Salvador, Malaya, Ireland, Thailand urge U.N. action on Tibet. [NY]

DEC 20 U.S. Ambassador Plimpton claims China wiping out Tibetans. Resolution demands end of China policy against Tibetans. [NY]

DEC 21 U.N. passes Tibet resolution with U.S. support. (Full text: []) [NY]

DEC 25 Mrs. O. Thondup interviewed on situation in Tibet. [NY]


JAN 7 China makes occupied-Tibet a separate customs area with posts on southern Tibet border. [NY]

JAN 12 Khampas kill 10 PLA troops. [NY]

JAN 22 240 dead in battle between Khampas and PLA. [NY]

FEB 3 Denial that aircraft dropping arms to Khampas in northern Nepal. India worried about potential PLA strike inside Nepal. [NY]

FEB 4 400 U.S. troops to go to Thailand to upgrade control and communications bases, possibly directing secret CIA supply flights. [RS, 61]

FEB 23 China allegedly massing troops on Laos border. [RS, 62]

FEB 24 China supports North Vietnamese denunciation of U.S. actions in South Vietnam. [RS, 62]

MAR 4 Sikkim says refugee flow ends. [NY]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama asks for aid for refugees, will visit Mysore settlement. [NY]

MAR 24 Nehru opposes China plan for new treaty not dealing with border. [NY]

MAR 26 Dalai Lama confers with Nehru. [NY]

APR 6 Justice Douglas says China will have nuclear bomb by 1972. [CR, 7084]

APR 26 First flight of U.S. SR-71 spy plane, Blackbird, with strategic intelligence role of flights along U.S.S.R. and China borders. [GY, 42]

APR 27 Peking says that in the past 15 months the U.S. has sent 52 warships on 40 occasions into Chinese waters and has flown 64 sorties into Chinese airspace. [CQ1, 130]

MAY Sino-Soviet border tensions lead China to press Xinjiang national minorities into labor on Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base towns (such as HQ at Malan) and communications systems. [LL, 180]

MAY 3 Four exiled Tibetan Buddhist monks arrive in U.S. [NY]

MAY 15 First launch of U.S. ELINT satellites capable of surveying Chinese radio, radar transmissions and missile test telemetry, and also monitoring Chinese occupation troops in Tibet. [GY, 109]

MAY 27 China claims reforms completed in Tibet. [NY]

JUN 2 India not to renew trade agreement with Tibet due to border dispute with China. [CQ1, 130]

JUN 7 China-India treaty expires, Nehru pledges peaceful coexistence. [NY]

JUN 20 Kennedy decides not to support Nationalist attacks from Taiwan against China proper. [RS, 64]

JUN 23 At Sino-American meeting in Warsaw the U.S. downplays Taiwan's threat to attack Chinese mainland. [RS, 65]

JUN 23 China military forces alerted to invasion threat from Taiwan. [CQ1, 131]

JUN 26 U.S. Ambassador in Warsaw given secret instructions to tell China that U.S. would not support Nationalist moves to invade from Taiwan. [CQ1, 131]

JUL 1 China breaks radio link to Indian consulate in Lhasa, only radio link from Tibet to non-Communist nations. [NY]

JUL 2 Khrushchev in televised address warns any attack on China would be opposed by the U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 131]

JUL 23 U.S. and China agree in Geneva Declaration to keep Laos neutral and independent, and not intervene in that nation's affairs. [HE, 650]

JUL 29 Books reviewed: Dalai Lama's My Land and My People, H.E. Richardson's A Short History of Tibet. [NY]

AUG NSA electronic spy ship off Cuba discovers U.S.S.R. military rockets in Cuba, suggesting such ships also monitor Chinese waters. [NW]

AUG 10 Panchen returns to Tibet from another trip to China. [NY]

AUG 29 U-2 over Cuba finds SAM sites used to protect nuclear missiles, displaying capability to detect military sites in China and Tibet. [GY, 36]

SEP China perfects implosion detonator for atomic bomb. [LL, 155]

SEP 2 U.S. confirms U-2 overflight of U.S.S.R.'s Sakhalin island. [CQ1, 131]

SEP 4 General Taylor, highest military commander of the U.S., tours East and Southeast Asia to Chinese protests. [RS, 84]

SEP 9 India decides to fight for Chinese-occupied Thagla Ridge area. [RS, 98]

SEP 9 U-2 operating from Taiwan is downed over eastern China by PLA. [RS, 84]

SEP 10 U.S.S.R. moves to oust Mongolian leader to prevent neutral or pro-Chinese development in Mongolia. [RS, 84]

SEP 11 Chinese two-year plan schedules atomic bomb test by 1965. [LL, 164]

OCT Second generator officially opened at Nachen Thang hydro plant, hundreds of Tibetans having died from starvation and exhaustion due to forced labor there. [JA, 232]

OCT 4 Rahman of Malaya charges China with genocide and human rights violations against Tibetans to U.N. [NY]

OCT 10 Chinese and Indian troops fight near Dhola. [CQ1, 131]

OCT 17 China prepares for offensive all along Tibetan border with India. [RS, 98]

OCT 18 U.S. ambassador Galbraith flies to Washington after meeting with Nehru. [RS, 99]

OCT 20 China launches full-scale offensive. [RS, 103]

OCT 22 In the midst of war in the Himalayas, Kennedy announces naval blockade of Cuba due to missile crisis. [RS, 99 ]

OCT 23 Major Indian offensive fails, forces retreat and abandon Tawang. [RS, 103]

OCT 29 U.S. agrees to supply weapons to India. [RS, 104]

NOV 3 U.S. weapons begin arriving in India. [RS, 104]

NOV 4 China claims to have restored Norbulingka and some monasteries. [NY]

NOV 13 CIA helps India form all-Tibetan secret commando group called Special Frontier Force, under code-name Establishment 22. CIA to NVDA assistance henceforth worked directly from New Delhi with special radio base in Orissa, India. [JA, 121]

NOV 20 China declares unilateral cease-fire after successful offensive and after Nehru makes urgent request for aid from U.S. and U.K. Kennedy cancels naval blockade to end "missile crisis" in Cuba. [RS, 104]

DEC 2 Discovery of intact Dalai Lama library in Lhasa. [NY]

DEC 16 China-Mongolia border agreement signed. [CQ]

DEC 26 China-Pakistan border agreement planned showing Pakistani control of Kashmir, claimed by India. [CQ1, 134]

1963/ JAN 5 Air America plane shot down over northern Laos on secret supply mission. [RS, 117]

MAR China begins moving research and development effort for atomic bomb from Beijing to Qinghai (Amdo) complex. [LL, 159]

MAR 2 China-Pakistan border agreement signed with India protest. [CQ1, 134]

MAR 8 Peking editorial reinterprets 1949 statement on international treaties so as to show current Chinese claims to the fullest extent of the Manchu Empire in 1840 (including Tibet). [FW, 25]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama announces new constitution, drawing heavily on the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. (Full text: [HC, 181]) [HC, 142]

MAR 30 China claims India using Tibetans and Dalai Lama in India to interfere in China's internal affairs. Swiss to admit 1,000 Tibetan refugees. [NY]

MAY 24 U.S. pledges long-term military aid to India for defense against Chinese attack through Tibet. [CQ1, 135]

JUN 4 China denounces U.S. actions in Laos. [RS, 131]

JUN 6 China warns U.S.S.R. not to sign treaty limiting nuclear weapons development by China. [RS, 131]

JUN 10 President Kennedy suggests an end to Cold War and start of friendship with the U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 136]

JUN 11 Vietnamese Buddhist Thich Quang-Duc commits ritual fire suicide in Saigon bringing global attention to the Buddhist movement in Southeast Asia. [RS, 148]

JUL 25 Test-Ban Treaty initialed. [CQ1, 136]

JUL 30 Nehru warns of Chinese military build-up in Tibet. [CQ1, 136]

JUL 31 China condemns Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, urging world conference to discuss destruction of all nuclear weapons. [CQ1, 136]

JUL 31 NSC meeting discusses implications of greater Chinese militancy in world affairs. [RS, 178]

AUG 5 Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty formally signed in Moscow. [CQ1, 137] SEP China completes design for at

omic bomb. Design group in Qinghai begins work on hydrogen fusion bomb. [LL, 162,196]

SEP 1 Swiss to admit another 1,000 Tibetan refugees. [NY] SEP 6 50,000 Kazakh nomads flee Xinjiang a

fter uprising against Chinese rule due to hunger and religious persecution. [CQ1, 137]

SEP 7 Xinjiang and Tibet described as colonial possessions of China. [NY]

OCT 28 China claims to be several years away from testing nuclear weapons. [CQ1, 138]

NOV 1 Peking says U-2 spy plane downed near Shanghai. [CQ1, 138]

NOV 20 China successfully tests atomic bomb implosion without nuclear component. [LL, 159] NOV 22 Kennedy assassinated and Johnson assumes Presidency. [CQ1, 139]

DEC Lanzhou plant succeeds in making weapons-grade uranium. [LL, 136]

DEC 8 Gyalo Thondup seeks United Nations aid, says Tibetans resist Chinese. [NY]

DEC 13 Assistant Sec. of State Hilsman announces U.S. wish for better relations with China. [CQ1, 139]

DEC 26 India sees Chinese military shi

ft from Tibet to Xinjiang. Fighting continues in Tibet and more refugees enter India. [NY]


9 Letter to editor urges U.S. and India to push for Chinese withdrawal from Tibet. [NY]


JAN 17 Dalai Lama's brother Lobsang Samden interviewed in Vienna: More than 6,000 Tibetans sterilized by force; thousands starved by China in effort to destroy Tibetans. [NY]

JAN 27 France recognizes the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 140]

FEB 16 100 Tibetans turned away from Indian border. [NY]

MAR Panchen Lama arrested in Lhasa after publicly supporting the Dalai Lama and Tibetan independence. [JA, 273]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama says China using torture against Tibetans. [NY]

MAR 27 China says India inciting rebellion in Tibet by supporting Dalai Lama. [NY]

MAR 30 U.S. Tibet Office in New York City planned. [NY]

MAY Mao urges speed-up in H-bomb project. [LL, 198]

MAY 17 Dalai Lama will meet Nehru to plan aid for 70,000 Tibetan refugees in India. [NY]

MAY 24 Dalai Lama to tour Asian Buddhist nations. [NY]

MAY 27 Nehru dies in New Delhi. [HE, 625]

JUN 17 Gen. Chang Kuo-hua was ousted in February, top Chinese commander in Tibet. [NY]

JUL Chou orders development of multi-stage nuclear missile warhead in order to pose credible deterrent threat to the U.S. [LL, 198]

JUL 4 50 more Tibetan refugees enter Ladakh. [NY]

JUL 9 Peking announces China will defend North Vietnam. [CQ, 144]

JUL 15 Dalai Lama's representative arrested in Nepal along with two aides. [NY]

JUL 19 Chinese censorship halting news from Tibet. China claims rebellion stopped. [NY]

AUG 17-day trial of the Panchen Lama by Chinese in Lhasa. [JA, 274-277]

AUG 7 Tonkin Gulf resolution passes, promoting next U.S. war in Asia. [CQ1, 145]

AUG 18 10,100 Tibetan refugees estimated in Nepal. [NY]

AUG 28 Lhasa demonstrations by more than 1,000 Tibetan students in early July. [NY] AUG 30 Nepal confirms fight mid-August between Khambas and Nepali troops at Mugu. [NY]

AUG 31 Nicaragua, El Salvador and Philippines urge U.N. debate on Tibet as situation worst since 1961 resolution. [NY]

SEP 2 U.S.S.R. press condemns Chinese map (by Liu Pei-Hua) showing 1840 boundaries (of presumed vassalage, not actual control) for current PRC territory, absorbing Tibet and Mongolia as well as vast tracts of India, Far and Southeast Asia. [FW, 26]

SEP 15 NSC meeting with Johnson, Rusk, Bundy, McNamara and McCone considers possible joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. preemptive military attack on China's nuclear facilities in Xinjiang. [] OCT 16 First Chinese atomic bomb test, atmospheric. [LL, 187]

NOV 3 Johnson elected President. [HE, 601]

NOV 16 China downs U.S. spy plane over south-central China. [CQ1, 147]

NOV 26 Yale University library receives works of Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. [NY] DEC 14 Times of India says China offering nuclear weapons specialists to Indonesia. [CQ0, 150]

DEC 14 Chang Kuo-hua reports rebellion continues in Tibet. [NY]

DEC 17 Peking for the first time brands the Dalai Lama as a traitor and removes him from the title as Chairman of PCART. [JA, 276]

DEC 19 China now claims Dalai Lama led rebellion. [NY]

DEC 21 Chou announces Panchen Lama has also been stripped of title in PCART. Though he is allowed to remain a member, he has not been seen in public for some time. [JA, 276] DEC 26 Pentagon announces nuclear missiles stationed at sea off the Chinese coast on U.S. submarine. [CQ1, 148]

DEC 31 Chou says Panchen Lama deposed as 'ruler of Tibet' for betraying China. [NY]


1965 Dalai Lama publishes An Introduction to Buddhism in Switzerland. [D2, 156]

JAN 13 I.C.J. reports continued persecution of Tibetans. [NY]

JAN 18 China says India has sent spy planes over its territory. [CQ1, 148]

eatened to kill Panchen Lama. [NY]

FEB 3 China plans one-megaton nuclear weapons. [LL, 208]

FEB 15 Peking threatens to enter Vietnam war and reopen Korean war. [CQ1, 150]

FEB 19 PLA defector describes terror and repression in Tibet. [NY]

MAR 15 Nixon says Vietnam conflict is actually a war between China and the U.S. [CQ1, 151]

APR 9 U.S. and Chinese warplanes battle near Hainan Island. [CQ1, 152]

MAY 14 Second Chinese atomic bomb exploded in atmosphere. [LL, 208]

JUN 18 Philippines wants U.N. debate on Tibet. [NY]

JUN 21 Dalai Lama says thousands killed in recent uprising, urges worldwide help through United Nations. [NY]

JUN 24 China to announce new government over Tibet called 'self-rule'. [NY]

JUN 25 Experts say China to retain absolute control over Tibet. [NY]

JUN 29 China bans international news media from Lhasa during change of occupation government. [NY]

JUL China radio in Lhasa claims to have crushed Tibetan rebellion. [FW, 208]

JUL 12 Guerilla offensive against PLA by Khampa rebels. [NY]

AUG 7 India-Pakistan fighting in disputed Kashmir. [CQ1, 155]

SEP 1 First People's Council of the new Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) meets in Lhasa. [JA, 277]

SEP 3 China announces it is freeing three Tibetan prisoners. [NY]

SEP 7 China denounces Indian aggression in Pakistan and pledges full support for Pakistan as fighting intensifies in Kashmir. [CQ1, 156]

SEP 9 First Tibetan People's Congress established by China announces plans. [NY]

SEP 10 Dalai Lama arrives at Bylakuppe settlement, now housing 3200 Tibetan refugees. He stays for ten days, then visits Mysore, Ootamacund and Madras. two bombs have meanwhile fallen on Dharamsala. [D3, 178]

SEP 10 Ngabo Ngawang Jigme is elected 'leader' of Tibet by C

hinese-dominated electors. China says he replaces Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. [NY]

SEP 16 China gives India ultimatum

over Kashmir fighting. U.S. sides with India and warns China against involvement. [FW, ]

SEP 20 China downs U.S. jet fighter over Hainan Island. [CQ1, 156] SEP 22 Pakistan joins India in accepting cease-fire dem

anded by U.N. in war over Kashmir and in accepting U.S.S.R. offer to mediate. [CQ1, 156]

SEP 23 Philippines sets Tibet as agenda item at U.N. over U.S.S.R. protest that Tibet is part of China. [NY]

SEP 29 U.N. votes to include Tibet on agenda over strong pro-Chinese protests. Albania claims U.S. trying to divert attention from its aggression in Asia. [NY]

SEP 30 Communists massacred in military takeover in Indonesia, abruptly ending its pro-Chinese foreign policies. [HE, 628]

OCT 27 Minister Chagla wants India to reconsider 1954 pact recognizing China's sovereignty over Tibet. [NY]

DEC 15 Taiwan says 300,000 troops ordered into Tibet. Ireland urges China negotiate with Dalai Lama. At the U.N. the Philippines, India, Ireland and Thailand say Tibetans being ruthlessly repressed by China. [NY]

DEC 18 U.S. U.N. Ambassador Goldberg urges resolution as appeal to China to end repression of Tibet. [NY]

DEC 18 By a 43-26-22 vote, U.N. General Assembly adopts resolution supporting human rights and freedoms of the Tibetan people. (Full text: [ ,333]) [CQ0, 168]

DEC 20 Chou says China ready to fight U.S. in Southeast Asia. [CQ1, 157]


MAR 7 Defense Sec. McNamara says China two to three years away from having nuclear missiles with 700-mile range. [CQ1, 160]

MAR 8 U.S. Senate begins hearings on China policy due to widening war in Indochina and fear of U.S. war with China. [CQ1, 161]

MAR 20 U.S. tells China at Warsaw meeting that U.S. military expansion in Vietnam not a prelude to invasion of China. China and U.S. agree to terms limiting war in North Vietnam. [CQ1, 162]

APR 12 U.S. begins first massive B-52 bombing of North Vietnam. [CQ1, 162]

MAY Tibetan Government in Exile sees separation of its legislature from administration with the election of people's deputies. [JA, 108]

MAY 9 Third Chinese atomic bomb tests H-bomb de

signs. [LL, 201]

MAY 17 China claims five U.S. planes shot down a Chinese plane over Chinese territory. [CQ1, 163]

JUL 5 China tightens control, seals border of Tibet. Strict curbs on lamas and monasteries to keep youth away. [NY]

AUG 25 Cultural Revolution begins in Tibet: Lhasa's Central Cathedral, the Tsuglakhang, is invaded by Red Guards and hundreds of rare and priceless items are destroyed. [JA, 281]

AUG 25 Red Guard in Lhasa ransacks Central Temple. [NY]

SEP 16 China claims two U.S. warplanes attacked Chinese territory. [CQ1, 165]

OCT 27 China test launches nuclear-armed missile from Shuangchengzi to Lop Nur. Fourth atomic test is 20-kiloton warhead on DF-2 rocket. [LL, 202]

NOV 15 China condemns Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [CQ1, 167]

NOV 21 U.S.S.R. discussed with U.S. its concerns at China's nuclear capability. [CQ1, 167]

DEC China test-launches DF-3 missile capable of hitting U.S. bases in the Philippines. [LL, 213]

DEC 12 London press says Tibetan rebels have killed over 5,000 PLA troops in recent battles. [NY]

DEC 22 Red Guards prepare to seize power from Communist bureaucrats in Tibet. [JA, 282]

DEC 28 China tests H-bomb principles in successful experiment. [LL, 201]


1967 Early in the year, China completes railway system, transport airbase and bomber station for Lop Nur Nuclear Base. [LL, 181]

JAN 10 Red Guards seize Tibet Daily, official newspaper of Chinese colonists in Tibet. [JA, 283]

JAN 11 CIA director Helms tells Congress that China is giving highest priority to development of nuclear weapons and 1,000-mile medium range missiles to deliver them. [CQ0, 216]

JAN 21 Chang Kuo-hua forced to flee Tibet during left-wing purges. [JA, 284]

JAN 25 Red Guards proclaim takeover of Central Committee of TAR and attempt coup in PLA leadership in Tibet. [JA, 284]

JAN 27 U.S. and U.S.S.R. sign agreement banning nuclear weapons from space. [HE, 652]

FEB 7 Further reports of August 25th, 1966, destruction at Lhasa cathedral by Red Guards. Red Guards denounce Gen. Chang Kuo-hua and Tan Kuan-san. [NY]

FEB 12 Taiwan says anti-Mao PLA units have seized control of Tibet in battles. [NY]

FEB 15 Lhasa controlled by anti-Mao troops led by Chang Kuo-hua and Chang Tsai-wang. [NY]

FEB 17 Red Guard-Army battle in Kantse District. [NY]

FEB 18 Peking sends three divisions to Tibet to suppress anti-Mao rebellion in PLA. [NY]

MAR 3 Tibet Daily reports PLA has ousted Red Guards and taken control of Lhasa. Martial law soon declared. [JA, 285]

MAR 21 Maoist troops r

egain control of police, press and banks in Tibet. [NY]

APR 6 Peking orders the PLA to cease repression of Red Guards. [JA, 285]

JUN 8 Red Guards resume battle for control of Communist regime in Tibet with full-scale war among the Chinese colonists lasting throughout the year. [JA, 286]

JUN 17 First Chinese H-bomb test of three-megaton, multi-stage device. [LL, 201]

AUG 2 Congressional report says China could launch a thermonuclear attack on the U.S. by the 1970s. [CQ1, 175]

AUG 20 Moscow radio reports fighting by Tibetan rebels in Lhasa. [NY] AUG 25 Great Northern Pa

per Company of U.S. hires six Tibetan refugees as lumberjacks in test project. [NY] AUG 28 Hundreds of Tibetan refugees enter Ind

ia relating new Red Guard campaign of terror to destroy all religious freedom in Tibet. [NY]

SEP 10 Continued factional Red Guard fighting in Tibet. [NY]

SEP 25 Dalai Lama visits Japan through October 19th. [HC, 198]

NOV 11 Dalai Lama visits Thailand for four days. [HC, 198]

NOV 21 Dalai Lama hopeful in spite of worst year for occupied Tibet since invasion. Chinese try to eradicate all Buddhist practice in country. [NY]

DEC 24 Seventh Chinese atomic bomb test. [LL, 244]


JAN Red Guard battles in Lhasa disrupt food distribution and tens of thousands of Tibetans die in five-year period of starvation. [JA, 287,299]

JAN 20 Letter says U.S. has abandoned Tibet for political purposes, urges U.S. to invite Dalai Lama to U.S. [NY]

JAN 23 USS Pueblo attacked and captured by North Korea, leading to scrapping of secret SIGINT patrols off Chinese coast using NSA ships. [NW, 280]

JUN 7 Two Chinese and 12 Tibetans killed in Lhasa protest. [JA, 302]

JUL 1 62 nations, including the U.S., U.S.S.R. and U.K., but not China or France, sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [CQ1, 180]

AUG Nixon describes China as "the next superpower." [SH, 351]

SEP 5 Red Guards finally establish a Cultural Revolution Committee in Tibet, although Peking has disarmed factions fighting continues. Most of Tibet's 6254 monasteries are systematically looted and destroyed, the plunder sent to China. Religion is outlawed and thousands of religious and other books are burned. [JA, 287-291]

SEP 7 China reports new revolutionary committee for Tibet. [NY]

OCT 1 Chou and Lin Biao call for massive war preparations across China. [JA, 299]

OCT 4 Chinese fighting Chinese in Tibet. [TT]

NOV Feature story on Tibetan settlements in Switzerland. [NG, 711-727]

NOV 26 Chou proposes resumption of talks with the U.S. [SH, 354]

DEC Radio Peking portrays the Dalai Lama as a bandit and traitor. [JA, 292]

DEC 27 Second Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 244]

DEC 31 Tibetans attack Chinese Embassy in New Delhi over China's harassment of author of book Revolt in Tibet, Frank Moraes. [NY]


1969 Dalai Lama publishes Happiness, Karma, and Mind in U.S. [D2, 156]

JAN 4 China demands compensation from India for Tibetan attack on embassy. [NY]

JAN 12 Khentse Rinpoche installed as six-year-old reincarnate lama from Bhutan. [NY]

JAN 26 Books reviewed: A Cultural History of Tibet by David Snellgrove and Hugh Richardson; Thubten Jigme Norbu and Colin Turnbull's Tibet. [NY]

FEB 1 Nixon secretly orders Kissinger to study rapprochement with China. [CQ1, 183] FEB 13 U.S. satellite reconnaissance photos of Tibet and map files from German Nazi General Hemmerich's collection (confiscated by the U.S. Army), including Swedish explorer Sven Hedin's v

port on southern Tibet, being compiled by NASA into latest maps of Tibet. [NY]

FEB 18 Chou forced to cancel talks with U.S. by hardline faction in China. [SH, 354]

MAR 2 Major border fighting between U.S.S.R. and China. [CQ1, 184]

MAR 12 Dalai Lama urges Tibetan refugees to preserve their Buddhism, marking ten-year exile. [NY]

MAR 21 Hong Kong press quotes Mao as willing to use nuclear weapons against U.S.S.R. if Russia attacked with same. [CQ1, 184]

MAR 30 China tightens Tibet border amid reports of border clashes with U.S.S.R. [NY]

APR 8 Taiwan says its agents fighting PLA along with 3,000 Tibetans. [NY]

APR 18 Nixon tells press that U.S. could monitor U.S.S.R. and North Korean radars in an ELINT incident, a damaging breach of intelligence causing those countries and China to change radar systems to deter U.S. spying. [SH, 74]

MAY U.S.S.R. transfers bombers to China border bases. [SH, 357]

JUN U.S.S.R. prepared to launch strike against Chinese nuclear facilities at Lanzhou. [SH, 357]

JUL 21 U.S. eases restrictions on travel to China. [SH, 356]

AUG 28 State Dept. claims U.S.S.R. planning pre-emptive strike against Chinese nuclear installations. [CQ1, 186]

SEP 5 U.S. implies it would not support U.S.S.R. moves against China. [SH, 359]

SEP 9 Nixon orders secret contacts with China via Warsaw. [SH, 359]

SEP 12 Panchen Lama has been imprisoned in China since 1964. [NY]

SEP 13 India says China moving nuclear weapons facilities to northern Tibet due to battles with U.S.S.R. [NY]

SEP 16 London press report U.S.S.R. may strike Lop Nur nuclear base. [CQ1, 187]

SEP 23 Ninth Chinese atomic bomb test, the first underground. [LL, 244]

SEP 29 Third Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 244]

OCT U.S.S.R. and China begin talks on border dispute, easing supposed threat of attack on nuclear sites. [SH, 359]

OCT Nixon secretly orders U.S.

SAC nuclear forces on highest combat status Def Con 1 for 29 days as 'signal' to U.S.S.R. [SH, 124]

NOV Nixon suspends U.S. Navy surveillance of Taiwan strait for the first time since Korean War. [SH]

NOV 16 Continued battle for control of Tibet by rival PLA factions. [NY]

DEC 19 20,000 Tibetan and Chinese prisoners forced to labor on jet airbase in southeast Tibet. China building network of military roads and war materials throughout country. [NY]

DEC 21 Reports from India speculate on status of Panchen Lama, probable he was tortured and beaten by Chinese. [NY]


JAN 25 Availability of Tibetan art treasures in Darjeeling, Nepal, Singapore, Hong Kong and Bangkok. [NY]

FEB U.S. tells China in Warsaw meeting that U.S. willing to withdraw forces from Taiwan in future. [SH, 360]

APR 24 China launches first satellite into orbit. [CQ1, 192]

APR 29 U.S. allows selected exports to communist China. [CQ1, 192]

APR 30 Nixon announces U.S. invasion of Cambodia to muted Chinese protest. [CQ1, 192]

JUL 10 U.S.S.R. SALT negotiators propose joint retaliatory action against Chinese aggression. [CQ]

JUL 27 Radio Lhasa reports suppression of local armed uprising. [AC, 80] JUL 28 Commerce Dept. approves sale of General Motors engines and parts to China via Italy. [CQ1, 194]

AUG 26 U.S. oil companies abroad permitted to let foreign ships use refueling facilities to and from communist China. [CQ1, 194]

SEP 15 House Foreign Affairs Committee hearings on China begin and run until October 6th. [CQ1, 194]

OCT 7 Start of unprecedented week-long debate in Dharamsala sees the founding of the Tibetan Youth Congress and its criticism of the Cabinet in exile. [JA, 110]

OCT 13 Canada recognizes the People's Republic of China. [CQ1, 194]

OCT 14 Fourth Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 244]

OCT 25 Nixon asks Yahya Khan of West Pakistan to tell China that U.S. wants high-level talks in Peking. [CQ1, 194]

NOV 11 Chou tells Khan that China welcomes talks with U.S. This message and at least 12 others pass between the White House and Islamabad prior to Kissinger trip. [CQ1, 194]


1971 China deploys DF-4 missiles capable of reaching U.S. SAC base on Guam, and deploys Soviet-targeted DF-4's to Xiao Qaidam and Da Qaidam in Qinghai and other bases in northwest China. [LL, 213] JAN U.S. pushes South Vietnam to invade Laos. China alerts large force in Yunnan. U.S. Air Force possibly ready to use nuclear weapons to support invasion. [SH, 369] JAN 2 Tonkin Gulf resolution repealed. [CQ1, 195] FEB 8 South Vietnam invades Laos with U.S. Air Force support. [CQ1, 195] FEB 11 Sixty-three nations, not including China, sign Seabed Nuclear Prohibition Treaty. [CQ1, 195] FEB 17 Nixon says U.S. invasion of Laos presents no threat to China. [CQ] MAR 6 At senior NSC meeting Kissinger expresses Nixon's special relationship with Yahya Khan as messenger to Peking. [SH, 448]

MAR 15 State Dept. lifts ban on travel to China. [CQ1, 196] MAR 25 President Khan in West Pakistan decides to attack East Pakistan on its decla

ration of independence, hundreds of thousands are killed in genocidal campaign. [SH, 444] APR 13 Chou supports West Pakistan in letter to Khan. [CQ1, 196] APR 14 U.S. eases 21-year trade embargo against China. [CQ1, 196]

APR 18 Rebels declare independence of Bangladesh. [CQ]

MAY 7 U.S. allows use of dollars in trade with China. [CQ1, 197]

JUN U.S. Big Bird spy satellite program provides 8-inch resolution from 110 mile high orbit. [NW, 287]

JUN 10 U.S. ends December 1950 trade embargo with China, placing China on par with U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 198]

JUN 13 New York Times begins publishing Pentagon Papers, a top secret U.S. history of war in Southeast Asia. [SH, 383]

JUL 5 Chou reportedly upset with U.S. plan to give Japan nuclear weapons. [SH, 382]

JUL 6 Nixon calls China potentially one of the five great economic powers. [CQ1, 63]

JUL 9 Secret talks in Peking include Kissinger and Winston Lord. [SH, 372]

JUL 15 Public announcement of secret U.S.-Peking talks. [SH, 374]

JUL 17 Kissinger tells India that U.S. would not oppose China if China joined Pakistan in war with India. [SH, 452]

JUL 19 U.S. announces that nuclear weapons previously based on Okinawa would not be moved closer to China. [CQ1, 198]

JUL 28 U.S. publicly suspends SR-71 spy flights over China. [CQ1, 200]

AUG Following Kissinger trip, CIA suspends all support for Tibetans at Chinese request. [JA, 125]

SEP 13 Chinese Defense Minister Lin Baio, opposed to U.S. rapprochement, dies in plane crash in Mongolia. [CQ1, 201]

OCT 5 U.S. says Kissinger will make second trip to Peking. [SH, 378]

OCT 20 Kissinger arrives in Peking for talks with Chou. [SH, 378]

OCT 25 U.N. votes to seat China in place of previously U.S.-supported Taiwan. [SH, 378]

OCT Special Frontier Force of 5,000 Tibetan troops spearhead Indian attack in Bangladesh fighting. [JA, 130]

NOV Founding of Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India. [JA, 93] NOV 7 Peking announces support for West Pakistan. [CQ1, 202]

NOV 18 12th Chinese atom bomb test. [LL, 245]

NOV 29 U.S. announces upcoming summit with China. [NY?]

DEC 3 West Pakistan launches surprise attack on India, India reprises and within weeks India forces East Pakistani surrender. [SH, 457]

DEC 20 Khan resigns due to defeat in war with India. [CQ1, 203]

1972/ 1972 Dalai Lama visits Thailand, publishes Opening of the Wisdom Eye in U.S. [D2, 156]

JAN 7 13th Chinese atom bomb test. [LL, 245]

JAN 22 Dalai Lama reports Tibetan uprising in Beru area of eastern Tibet. [NY]

FEB 14 Further easing of U.S. trade ban with China. [CQ1, 203]

FEB 14 Hughes Tool Company satellite station in Peking leased to China. [CQ1, 203]

FEB 15 RCA Global Communications to sell $2.9 million satellite station in Shanghai. [CQ1, 203]

FEB 17 Joint Chiefs Chair Moorer tells Congress that Chinese nuclear capability causing U.S. to change military policies. [CQ1, 203]

FEB 17 Defense Dept. says China could have 10-20 nuclear missiles aimed at U.S. by mid-1976. [CQ1, 204]

FEB 17 President Nixon leaves for China despite not having assurances that he would actually meet with Mao. [SH, 489]

FEB 27 Shanghai Communiqué announces U.S. policy shift away from Taiwan. Nixon promises full relations during his second term. (Full text: [CQ1, 323]) [CQ1, 204]

FEB 27 After Nixon visit, China grants NSA permission to build electronic spy bases at Korla and Qitai (Jitai?) in Xinjiang near U.S.S.R. border. [NW, 289]

MAR 18 14th Chinese atom bomb test. [LL, 245]

APR 5 Tang Mingchao appointed U.N. Undersecretary General for Political Affairs and Decolonization. [CQ1, 205]

MAY 15 Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, revert to Japan. [CQ1, 205]

JUN 17 Watergate break-in, ultimately leading to resignation of Nixon. [CQ1, 205]

JUN 19 Kissinger arrives in Peking for 6-day visit. [CQ]

JUL Struggle for the Restoration of Tibet's Rightful Independence popular organization founded in Dharamsala. [JA, 111]

JUL 8 Gerald Ford says China wants U.S. forces in Pacific. [CQ1, 206]

JUL 27 China protests U.N. assistance to Tibetan refugees at Geneva meeting. [AC, 80]

AUG 1 China casts its first U.N. veto, blocking admission of Bangladesh. [CQ1, 206]

AUG 18 RCA Global Communications sells China $5.7 million satellite expansion. [CQ1, 206] AUG 25 Obituary of C.S. Cutting. [NY]

SEP 9 China to buy $150 million in aircraft from Boeing. [CQ1, 206]

SEP 14 Louis Dreyfus Corp. to sell China more than 500,000 tons of wheat. [CQ1, 206]

SEP 24 Dalai Lama's aid for Tibetan refugees. [NY]

OCT 8 P. Thonden describes life in India and the U.S. for exiled Tibetans. [NY]

NOV 7 Nixon reelected. [CQ1, 207]

NOV 22 Nixon lifts travel ban to China by U.S. ships and planes. [CQ1, 207]


JAN 23 Paris peace treaty initialed to end Vietnam war. [SH, 633]

JAN 27 Paris peace treaty signed, calls for ceasefire in Vietnam, but not Cambodia or Laos. [CQ1, 208]

FEB 15 Kissinger in Peking for five-day visit. [CQ1, 208]

MAR U.S. RHYOLITE spy satellite capable of intercepting Chinese missile test telemetry and HF and VHF military transmissions. [NW, 287]

MAR 4 China said to have 500 missiles of 600-3500 mile range and be developing 5,000-7,000 mile range ICBM. [CQ1, 209]

APR 5 China and Japan begin formal relations. [CQ1, 209]

APR 17 Western Union to establish link between Peking and New York under Chinese agreement. [CQ1, 209]

MAY 14 U.S. Liaison Office chief David Bruce arrives in Peking. [CQ1, 209]

JUN 9 Peking to continue ban on U.S. tourism. [CQ1, 210]

JUN 17 China illegally importing meat to U.S. [CQ]

JUN 27 Fifth Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 245]

JUL 4 David Rockefeller announces Chase Manhattan Bank deal with Bank of China. [CQ1, 210]

AUG 21 China signs Treaty of Tlatelolco banning nuclear arms from Latin America. [CQ1, 210]

AUG 22 Kissinger named Secretary of State. [CQ1, 210]

SEP 29 At the onset of the first trip outside Asia by a Dalai Lama, His Holiness meets with Pope Paul VI at the Vatican. [HC, 198]

SEP 30 Dalai Lama visits Switzerland through October 6th. [HC, 198]

OCT 7 Dalai Lama two day visit to the Netherlands. [HC, 198]

OCT 9 Dalai Lama to Belgium and Ireland. [HC, 198]

OCT 10 Dalai Lama visits Norway through the 13th, receives the Palketta Award. [HC, 198] OCT 13 Dalai Lama in Sweden through the 17th. [HC, 198]

OCT 17 Dalai Lama visits Denmark through the 20th. [HC, 198]

OCT 20 Dalai Lama in Britain until the 30th. [HC, 198]

OCT 27 China boosting local militia units for domestic control. [CQ1, 211]

OCT 30 Dalai Lama visits West Germany through November 5th. [HC, 198]

NOV Mao demands Nepal shut down Tibetan guerrilla base at Mustang. [JA, 126]

NOV 5 Dalai Lama in Austria. [HC, 198]

NOV 11 Kissinger to Peking for five-day visit. [CQ1, 212]

DEC 6 Gerald Ford confirmed as Vice President. [CQ1, 212]


1974 Dalai Lama visits Switzerland and Tibetan settlements in southern India. [D2, 157]

JAN 4 China announces major change of top regional military commands. [CQ1, 212]

FEB 28 Defense Sec. Schlesinger says China wants U.S. troop strength in Asia to oppose U.S.S.R. threat. [CQ1, 213]

APR 10 Deng Xiaoping's U.N. address offers China as leader of the third world, as Chou had in 1954. [CQ1, 213]

MAY 16 India's first atomic bomb test. [SH, 464]

JUN 11 Reports on negotiations between Dalai Lama and China, China acknowledges support for Dalai Lama in Tibet. [NY]

JUN 17 Sixth Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 245]

JUN 17 15th Chinese atmospheric nuclear weapons explosion, protested by Japan, India, Australia and New Zealand. [CQ1, 214]

AUG NVDA bases in Mustang surrender or are destroyed by Nepalese troops in cooperation with PLA forces in Tibet. [JA, 126-128]

AUG 9 Nixon resigns, Ford becomes President. [CQ1, 214]

SEP 4 CIA report says Taiwan nuclear-capable by 1979. [CQ1, 214]

SEP 11 China will not recognize Indian annexation of Sikkim, which it had condemned as colonial expansion. [CQ1, 214]

SEP 29 TASS accuses China of making Tibet a huge military base, threatening neighboring countries. [NY]

OCT 11 Taiwan Resolution of 1955 repealed by Congress. [CQ1, 215]

OCT 21 George Bush arrives in Peking as head of Liaison Office. [CQ1, 215]

NOV 2 Bush holds talks with Deng Xiaoping. [CQ1, 215]

NOV 12 Sen. Mansfield meets with Chou and Deng in China. [CQ1, 215]

NOV 25 Kissinger briefs Chinese leaders on SALT accord. [CQ1, 216]


1975 Dalai Lama publishes Buddhism of Tibet and Key to the Middle Way in U.S. and Britain. [D2, 157]

1975 China begins launching spy-satellites from Shuang-Cheng-Tzu Space Center. [GY, 155]

FEB 27 China cancels total 1974 order for wheat from the U.S. [CQ1, 216]

APR 5 Chiang Kai-shek dies. [CQ1, 218]

MAY 24 Dalai Lama addresses Buddhist leaders' conference in Darjeeling, India. [AC, 81]

JUN 3 London press says Deng urges stronger U.S. forces to counter U.S.S.R. around the world. [CQ1, 219]

AUG 6 Deng receives U.S. congressional delegations between now and August 29th. [CQ1, 220]

AUG 8 Chinese liaison office in U.S. asks State Dept. to prevent arrival in U.S. of Tibetan cultural group. [CQ]

SEP 24 State Dept. rejects China on Tibetan visit. [CQ1, 221]

OCT 14 China protests new Office of Tibet in New York, which legally registered with State Dept. as agent of Dalai Lama. U.S. rejects complaint. [CQ1, 221]

OCT 19 Kissinger to Peking for four-day visit. [CQ1, 221]

OCT 27 17th Chinese atomic bomb test, second underground. [LL, 245]

DEC 1 President Ford in China for five-day visit. [CQ1, 221]

DEC 29 Eisenhowers in China for five-day visit. [CQ1, 221]


JAN 8 Death of Chou En-lai. [JA, 323]

JAN 23 18th Chinese atomic bomb test. [LL, 245]

FEB 12 China reports border clash with U.S.S.R. in Xinjiang. [CQ1, 223]

FEB 21 Nixon arrives in Peking for nine-day visit. [CQ1, 222]

MAR 19 Thomas Gates to succeed Bush at Liaison Office in Peking. [CQ1, 223]

APR 7 Hua Guofeng named to succeed Chou as premier. Deng stripped of all posts. [CQ1, 223]

MAY 20 India and China resume trade. [CQ1, 225]

MAY 22 London press says U.S. shared intelligence data with China on U.S.S.R. spy ships in East Asia. [CQ1, 225]

JUL 10 Sen. Scott to China for 14-day visit. [CQ1, 225]

JUL 24 India and China resume relations after 14 years. [CQ1, 225]

SEP Neither Dalai Lama nor Tibetan Government in Exile have contact with Peking until after death of Mao. [D3, 221]

SEP 6 Schlesinger arrives in China with delegation of U.S. military and intelligence experts, tour China including Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. Kissinger had blocked two earlier trips by Schlesinger. [CQ1, 226]

SEP 9 Death of Mao. [JA, 323]

SEP 26 19th Chinese atomic bomb test, "special weapon". [LL, 245]

OCT 6 "Gang of four" arrested in Peking power struggle. [CQ]

OCT 17 20th Chinese atomic bomb test, third underground. [LL, 245]

OCT 25 Pullman-Kellogg fertilizer plants open in China. [CQ1, 226]

OCT 28 On Kissinger's advice, President Ford approves for sale to China CDC Cyber 172 computers capable of nuclear test calculations and code breaking. [CQ1, 227]

NOV 2 Carter elected President. [CQ1, 227]

NOV 17 7th Chinese H-bomb test. [LL, 245]

DEC 10 U.N. appeal to recognize leadership of Dalai Lama in Dharamsala. [AC, 82]

DEC 19 U.S. KEYHOLE electronic spy satellite launched; designed to decrease U.S.

reliance on overseas NSA bases, such as those in and around China and Tibet. [NW, 289]


1977 George Bush, after Chinese-led tour of Lhasa, writes article in Newsweek criticizing Dalai Lama. [D2, 7]

MAR 10 India's internal secret service subverts planned demonstration at Chinese embassy in Delhi by the Tibetan Youth Congress, hundreds of Tibetans arrested. [JA, 111]

MAR 20 Start of 10-day hunger strike by the newly-formed Tibetan People's Freedom Movement demanding implementation of U.N. resolution on Tibet; strike ends with turmoil in Dharamsala and failure of India's just-elected Janata Party to keep promises to openly support Tibet's cause. [JA, 112]

APR Ngapo Ngawang Jigme says China would welcome the return of the Dalai Lama. [JA, 324]

MAY 2 Dalai Lama invited back to Tibet. [TT]

JUN 30 SEATO dissolved as Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia fall out of U.S. influence, ending U.S. effort to isolate and surround China. [CQ1, 229]

AUG 17 India says Tibet is part of China. [AC, 82]

AUG 22 Sec. of State Vance arrives in China for five-day visit. [CQ1, 232]

SEP 17 22nd Chinese atomic bomb test. [LL, 245]

OCT 23 State Dept. blocking proposed trip to U.S. by Dalai Lama so as not to offend China. [NY]


FEB 5 Deng says China slow to allow foreigners into Tibet. [NY]

FEB 16 EEC grants China most-favored-nation trade status for five years. [CQ1, 236]

FEB 18 U.S. and Canadian citizens from Tibet campaign to remove "China" from their passports. [NY]

FEB 25 China releases the Panchen Lama after 14 years in Qin Cheng Prison near Peking. [JA, 324]

FEB 25 Panchen Lama attends Peking conference. [NY]

MAR 3 China publishes interview with Panchen Lama on his life since 1964. [NY]

MAR 10 Dalai Lama calls on China to permit unrestricted access to Tibet by foreigners and freedom of travel for Tibetans. [D3, 222]

MAR 13 Prof. Tung letter disputes Tibet's status as independent in 1940s. [NY]

MAR 15 23rd Chinese atomic bomb test. [LL, 245]

MAR 30 Tinley N. Akar disputes Tung letter. [NY]

APR Tibetan Youth Congress calls for an internationally-authorized referendum in Tibet. [AC, 82]

APR 17 Prime Minister Desai admits India-U.S. intelligence team planted a nuclear-powered spy device in the Himalayas in 1966 to monitor Chinese nuclear tests at Lop Nur. [CQ1, 236]

MAY 5 India Minister Vajpayee restates policy that India says Tibet is part of China. [AC, 82]

MAY 20 National security advisor Brzezenski arrives in China with State, Defense and NSC officials and tells China that U.S. will not oppose European sale of arms to China. [CQ1, 237]

JUN China permits Tibetans to contact and visit exiles abroad. [JA, 328]

JUN 2 Marchais Center on Tibetan Art to show photos of Tibet in 1942 taken by Tolstoi and Dolan. [NY]

AUG 12 China signs peace and friendship treaty with Japan. [CQ1, 238]

OCT 4-9 Dalai Lama visits Japan. [HC, 198]

OCT 14 24th Chinese atomic bomb test, fourth underground. [LL, 245]

OCT 25 Dalai Lama sees China losing control of Tibet. [NY]

NOV China releases 34 prisoners who had been administrators in the former Tibetan Government. [D3, 224]

NOV 15 China releases 24 former Tibetan officials from prison with ten others. [AC, 82]

NOV 16 China frees 24 Tibetans imprisoned for 19 years. [NY]

NOV 17 Dalai Lama praises release of Tibetans. [NY]

DEC 5 U.S. Energy Dept. says Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests has caused the first increase in global radioactivity in four years. [CQ]

DEC 11 U.S. invites Deng to visit. [CQ1, 241]

DEC 14 25th Chinese atomic bomb test. [LL, 245]

DEC 15 U.S. announces recognition of China in 1979. [CQ1, 242]

DEC 19 China to buy three Boeing jumbo jets. [CQ1, 242]

DEC 29 Panchen Lama in Peking says Dalai Lama should return from exile. [AC, 82]<

BR> 1979/ 1979 Dalai Lama U.S.S.R. and the U.S. and receives honorary doctorate of humanities from Seattle U. and U. of Oriental Studies, Los Angeles. He receives medal from Asian Buddhist Committee for Peace. [D2, 157]

JAN 1 U.S. officially recognizes the People's Republic of China. Panchen Lama calls for the Dalai Lama and other Tibetans to return to Tibet. [JA, 328]

JAN 5 Britain announces $2 billion deal with China, including fighter planes. [CQ1, 244]

JAN 6 U.S. Tibet Committee director Trinley tells of Tibetan struggle. [NY]

JAN 8 Radio Lhasa announces formation of a reception committee to welcome r

eturning Tibetans. [JA, 328]

JAN 15 President Carter names Leonard Woodcock as first U.S. Ambassador to China since 1949. [CQ1, 244]

JAN 28 Deng Xiaoping arrives in U.S. for nine-day visit. [CQ1, 245]

JAN 30 Dalai Lama ready to negotiate with China over occupied Tibet. [NY] JAN 31 Dal

ai Lama tells reporters in Calcutta he is trying to contact the Chinese Embassy. [JA, 329]

JAN 31 Carter and Deng

sign agreements on consulates, science and technology, and trade. [CQ1, 245] FEB 1 U.S. formally recognizes the Peo

ple's Republic of China. Panchen Lama calls for the return of the Dalai Lama. [D3, 224]

FEB 3 Hadley describes 100,000 Tibetan refugees. [NY]

FEB 3 Dalai Lama calls for China to open Tibet to world. [NY]

FEB 7 First group of Tibetan exiles to visit Tibet in 20 years. Dalai Lama welcomes first-hand account of conditions. [AC, 85]

FEB 9 U.S. warns China against attacking Vietnam. [CQ1, 246]

FEB 11 Dalai Lama declines Chinese invitation to visit Tibet under present terms. [AC, 85]

FEB 17 China invades Vietnam, U.S. links withdrawal to Vietnamese presence in Cambodia. [CQ1, 246] FEB 18 U.S. electronic surveillance base to remain at Shulinkou on Taiwan. [CQ1, 246]

FEB 23 U.S. and Chinese ports open to each other for the first time in 30 years. [CQ1, 246]

MAR 1 U.S. breaks official relations with Taiwan, opens embassy with China. [CQ1, 247]

MAR 8 India and China discuss Tibet as part of China. China may consider permitting

Indians to visit Kailash and Lake Mansorova. [AC, 86]

MAR 9 Dalai Lama says struggle for free Tibet will continue and that Tibetan youth understand Tibet is their nation. [AC, 86]

MAR 16 China announces end to war with Vietnam. [CQ1, 248]

MAR 19 China frees 376 Tibetan prisoners on March 17th in "leniency". [AC, 87]

APR 10 Carter signs Taiwan Relations Act. Despite admitting it was sovereign Chinese territory, the U.S. continues to treat Taiwan as an independent nation. [CQ1, 249]

APR 15 China news says Tibetans will be compensated for lands seized in 1959. [NY]

APR 18 Former monk imprisoned for 21 years: Tibetan resistance against Chinese rule is strong; Tibetans cannot go to monasteries without permits; demands free movement for Tibetans. [AC, 88]

APR 19 U.S. denies agreement with China on spy bases to monitor U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 249] APR 19 Fifteen Tibetan refugees to visit Tibet to study situation there. [AC, 88] APR 30 Formation of a communist party among Tibetans in exile in India. [AC, 89] MAY 1 Tibetan Youth Congress president Losang Jinpa says India has ignored the national struggle of Tibet while supporting Namibia, the PLO and South African independence. [AC, 89]

MAY 3 Bhutan and Dalai Lama's representatives discuss Tibetan refugees in Bhutan. China completes first 700-km rail link from Chinghai province towards Lhasa, high-grade zinc and lead deposits discovered along route. [AC, 89]

MAY 10 Dalai Lama tells French television he is wary of new Chinese liberalization as her leaders have been unpredictable. [AC, 90]

MAY 11 U.S. and China settle claims and frozen assets problems. [CQ1, 249]

MAY 20 Exile trip to Tibet abandoned when China suddenly insists the group apply for visas as Chinese nationals. [AC, 90]

MAY 28 Dalai Lama says he plans to visit Mongolia to attend the Asian Buddhist Conference in June, but will not ask Soviet help in freeing Tibet. [AC, 91]

JUN 2 Khampa rebel released from 13-year imprisonment by China says armed resistance to Chinese occupation is strong throughout the country. [AC, 91]

JUN 9 Dalai Lama plans to visit the United States in September but is encountering State Dept. discouragement. Covert aid to Tibetan rebels said to have ended with secret Kissinger trip to Peking in 1971. [AC, 91]

JUN 12 Dalai Lama visits Mongolia. [HC, 198]

JUN 13 Dalai Lama begins visit to U.S.S.R. and Mongolia. [NY]

JUN 18 U.S. and U.S.S.R. sign SALT II agreement. [CQ1, 250]

JUN 21 Dalai Lama hails Carter-Brezhnev summit as step towards

peace. [AC, 92]

JUN 26 Dalai Lama welcomes improved relations between China and India as a benefit to solving Tibet issue. [AC, 92]

JUL 2 Dalai Lama says a "federation" with China might be possible if it would lead to happiness for six million Tibetans. [AC, 92]

JUL 7 Dalai Lama says Tibet would probably have a socialist government following a Buddhist philosophy if he ever returns to Lhasa. [AC, 92]

JUL 13 Vice Chairman of National People's Congress Ngapo Ngawang Jigme in Peking asks Dalai Lama to return to China. [AC, 93]

JUL 13 Dalai Lama arrives in Geneva for medical treatment. [NY]

JUL 17 Tibetan Youth Congress urges international effort to bring self-determination and freedom to Tibet. [AC, 93]

JUL 18 EEC grants China most-favored-nation status. [CQ1, 251]

JUL 19 Dalai Lama allows for possible role of Marxism in future in Tibet, but says Tibetans suffer under Chinese occupation. [NY]

JUL 19 China appears to admit power of Buddhism in Tibet despite destroying 2,454 monasteries and reducing ranks of monks from 110,000 to 2,000. [NY]

JUL 20 Description of Tibet after two decades of Chinese occupation. [NY]

JUL 22 Dalai Lama says he welcomes liberalization under new Peking leadership, but situation in occupied-Tibet still remains unsatisfactory. [AC, 93]

JUL 22 Description of Chinese method of buying good will in Tibet. [NY]

JUL 23 China opening Tibet to tourism at high cost. [NY]

JUL 26 Lhasa described. [NY]

JUL 29 Chinese assigned to Tibet said to be unhappy. [NY]

AUG 2 First Tibetan delegation leaves New Delhi for Hong Kong on way to Tibet. [JA, 330]

AUG 2 Tibet envoys arrive for talks with China. Party includes Lobsang Samten, elder brother of the Dalai Lama. [AC, 95]

AUG 3-6 Dalai Lama visits Greece. [HC, 198]

AUG 3 Balraj Madhok, president of Indo-Tibetan Friendship Society urges India to work towards Tibet as a zone of peace. [AC, 93]

AUG 6 Dalai Lama in Switzerland through September 10th. [HC, 198]

AUG 8 Dalai Lama's representative asks India to grant asylum to 4,000 Tibetan refugees in Bhutan who are threatened with return to Chinese-controlled Tibet. [AC, 94]

AUG 9 Trinley comments on recent series of articles on Tibet by Fox Butterfield. [NY]

AUG 16 Dalai Lama to visit U.S. next month. [NY]

AUG 24 Vice-President Mondale to China for 11-day visit. U.S. to help with 20 hydroelectric power projects. [CQ1, 251]

AUG 27 Tibetan delegation has been in China for past three weeks for talks with Peking leaders. [AC, 94]

AUG 28 Tibetan delegation leaves Lanzhou heading for Amdo. [JA, 332] SEP 2 China says Tian Bao replaces Ren Rong as leader of Tibet. [NY]

SEP 2 Dalai Lama and Buddhism. [NY]

SEP 3 Tibetan Youth Congress appeals to the U.S. to help resolve the Tibet question. [AC, 94]

SEP 4 Dalai Lama visits the U.S. through October 20th. [HC, 198]

SEP 4 Dalai Lama arrives in New York in first visit to U.S., but the U.S. Government requests his seven-week trip be as religious head and not as exiled leader of Tibet. [AC, 94]

SEP 4 Dalai Lama arrives in New York on 49-day tour of U.S. for cause of independent Tibet. [NY] SEP 5 India lifts trade barriers with Tibet region. [AC, 94]

SEP 5 Dalai Lama news conference: Recent contact with China hopeful, but doubts his return to Tibet soon; need new attitude by Chinese. [NY]

SEP 7 Tibetan festival at Marchais Center. [NY]

SEP 8 Dalai Lama says Buddhists could learn from Christian activism. [NY]

SEP 12 Dalai Lama speaks at Georgetown U. and Constitution Hall on religion and meets with members of Senate Foreign Relations Committee. [NY] SEP 16 Dalai Lama visits New Jersey Buddhist monastery. [NY]

SEP 17 Nixon to China for three-day visit. [CQ1, 252] SEP 20 China resumes official contacts with Dalai Lama after

20 years. [AC, 94]

SEP 20 Dalai Lama at East-West conference in Houston. [NY]

SEP 21 Tibetan Youth Congress says Chinese overtures to Dalai Lama show he is a symbol of Tibetan independence for the world. [AC, 95]

SEP 22 U.S. to help China replant huge areas of deforested land. [CQ1, 252]

SEP 24 Editorial hopes for preservation of Tibetan culture and religion. [NY]

OCT First Tibetan delegation returns from Tibet with hundreds of rolls of film chronicling the systematic destruction of the Tibetan culture. [D3, 231]

OCT 3 U.S. Defense Dept. urges arms sales to China. [NY]

OCT 4 Vance denies U.S. will sell arms to Peking. [CQ1, 253


OCT 5 World Fellowship of Buddhists urge U.N. to let Dalai Lama address body. [NY]

OCT 9 Tibetan exile allowed to return home says Tibetans now uniformly poor under communism and severely repressed. [AC, 95]

Buddhist monasteries in New Jersey, urging preservation of Mongol heritage. [NY] OCT 15 Dalai Lama at St. John the Devine speaks on Buddhism. [NY]

OCT 21 Dalai Lama news conference on leaving U.S. [NY] OCT 23 Carter signs Jackson-Vanik amendment waiver to allow China most-favored-nation (MFN) status. [CQ1, 254]

OCT 28 China slow to improve conditions for Tibetans. [NY]

OCT 29 Incarnations under Chinese control in Tibet. [NY] NOV 24 China and Nepal sign protocol on Tibet-Nepal border. [CQ1, 255]

NOV 25 Huang Hua signs border protocol with Nepal. [NY]

NOV 30 CIA report on Tibet (years old) says Tibetans support Dalai Lama and their religion even under pains of imprisonment and death. [AC, 96]

DEC NSA electronic spy posts at Behshahr and Kabkan close with success of Iranian revolution. Loss prompts U.S. to seek other bases for espionage, such as China and from orbit. [NW, 289]

DEC 5 India asked by Tibetan Youth Congress to permit refugees in Bhutan to enter India on humanitarian grounds. [AC, 96]

DEC 9 Audrey Topping on visit to Tibet. [NY]

DEC 10 Tibetan exiles in India demonstrate against China as a U.N. member not upholding basic human rights in Tibet. [AC, 97]

DEC 12 Japan reported upset at U.S. plans to supply helicopters and DC-9's to China. [CQ1, 257] DEC 18 Bhutan defers plan to reVlocate 4,000 Tibetan refugees. [AC, 97]

DEC 25 U.S.S.R. begins airlift of troops and supplies into Afghanistan. [CQ1, 258]

DEC 28 Carter condemns Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. Rand Corporation urges U.S. security ties with China. [CQ1, 258]

DEC 30 U.S. reaffirms 1959 security pact with Pakistan. [CQ1, 259] DEC 31 U.S. ends 1954 defense treaty with Taiwan. [CQ1, 259] 1980/

1980 Dalai Lama visits U.S. again this year. [D2, 157] JAN 3 U.S.S.R. claims CIA, China and Britain behind Afghan rebellion. [CQ1, 260] JAN 3 U.S. to provide China Landsat (space reconnaissance) access having military applications. Defense Dept. studies $41-63 billion arms plan for China. [NY]

JAN 5 Defense Sec. Brown to China for eight-day visit. China admits supplying weapons to Afghan rebels and promises U.S. to increase such secret arms aid. U.S. asks China for military aid against Vietnam if Vietnam enters Thailand. [CQ1, 260]

JAN 7 U.S.S.R. says U.S. and China military training Afghan rebels, warns U.S. not to use China as pressure on U.S.S.R. [CQ1, 260]

JAN 24 Defense Dept. announces plans to sell arms to China despite ban. Congress approves MFN status for China. [CQ1, 264]

JAN 27 Prof. Pedersen disputes Topping report on Tibet and Topping replies. [NY] APR 7 Tourists to enter Tibet from Nepal in fall of 1980. [NY] APR 7 Nepal-Tibet trade increased. [AC, 97]

APR 24 Dalai Lama says China becoming more moderate but no trips planned to Tibet. Peking talks noted. [NY]

APR 25 Dalai Lama says China more moderate and he could envision returning to Tibet some day. [AC, 97]

APR 30 Soviet Buddhist leader says Buddhists in the U.S.S.R. desire justice for Tibetan Buddhists. [AC, 97] MAY China tests DF-5 ICBM over Pacific capable of delivering H-bombs to Hawaii and continental U.S. [LL, 214] MAY 1 Second five-member Tibetan delegation leaves Hong Kong for Tibet. [AC, 98] MAY 3 Dalai Lama welcomes offer of support from U.S.S.R. official. [AC, 98] MAY 11 Tibet to be opened to tourists via Nepal. [AC, 98] MAY 14 Dalai Lama says U.S.S.R. has begun to support the Tibetan struggle. [AC, 98]

JUN 1 Hu Yaobang touring Tibet says China to try to help Tibetans. [NY]

JUN 16 14-nation science tour of Tibet ends ten-day study. [NY] JUN 23 Chinese Vice Premier Wan Li in new policy says Tibetan interests should be a priority. [AC, 99]

JUL 2 Tibetan Youth Congress accuses China of luring Dalai Lama to Tibet to place him under house arrest like Panchen Lama. [AC, 99]

JUL 13 Thubten Jigme Norbu, Dalai Lama's brother and a scholar at Indiana University, arrives in Peking on invitation from China. [AC, 99]

JUL 14 Thubten Jigme Norbu in China on way to Lhasa says Dalai Lama could visit soon. [NY]

JUL 18 Canty's four-month visit to China and Tibet. [NY]

JUL 19 China allows first foreign tourists into Tibet. [AC, 99]

AUG 1 Fact-finding mission visit cut short after emotional demonstration in Lhasa. [AC, 100] AUG 1 Lhasa demonstrations during visit of Tsering Dorjee and China cuts trip short. [NY] AUG 3 New Communist Party chief in Tibet, Yin Fatang, says Dalai Lama could possibly return to Tibet as a spiritual leader. [AC, 100]

AUG 14 Thubten Jigme Norbu leaves Tibet after ten-day visit. [NY] AUG 16 Tibetan exile delegation returns from three-month tour of Tibet saying Tibetans want freedom from China and 99% of monasteries destroyed. [NY]

AUG 17 Drepung permitted by China to admit monk novice. [NY]

AUG 20 China begins to admit to failure in its Tibet policies. [AC, 100]

AUG 31 Dalai Lama possible visit to Tibet. [NY]

SEP 16 Nepal and Tibet agree to expand trade. [AC, 100]

OCT Third delegation returns to Dharamsala. [D3, 238]

OCT 7 Dalai Lama in Rome says he is not bitter towards Chinese for two decades of repression and destruction. [AC, 101]

OCT 8 Dalai Lama in New Delhi says Tibetan situation is bad. He plans four-week world tour. [NY]

OCT 10 Dalai Lama arrives in Canada for a 17-day visit. [AC, 101] OCT 15 Allman article describes changes in Tibet since Cultural Revolution. [NY]

OCT 17 Dalai Lama in Canada sees no trip to Tibet soon. [NY]

OCT 19 French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing and his wife leave Peking for first visit by a Western leader to Tibet. [AC, 101]

OCT 22 India agrees to take 1,500 Tibetan refugees from Bhutan. [AC, 101] OCT 24 Dalai Lama says he will continue to live outside Tibet while Tibetans there suffer. [AC, 101]

OCT 31 Dalai Lama visits Japan through November 13th. [HC, 199] NOV Reagan elected President. []

MAR 3 Dalai Lama in Tokyo admires recent Chinese admission of errors in Tibet. He will return to Tibet if Tibetan people desire it. [NY]

NOV 7 Topping's book Splendors of Tibet reviewed. [NY] NOV 18 Dalai Lama in Tokyo says while numbers of civilian Chinese in Tibet may have lowered, China was pouring military into the country, possibly due to the Afghan crisis. [AC, 101]

DEC 17 Chinese Red Guards terrible destruction of Tibetan culture described. [NY] 1981/

1981 Dalai Lama again visits the U.S. and performs first Kalachakra Initiation in the West at Madison, Wisconsin. [HC, 199]

JAN 4 Topping book reviewed again. [NY] FEB 15 Whittle visit to Tibet described. [NY]

APR 29 China refuses permission for the fourth Tibetan delegation to enter Tibet. [AC, 102] MAY 5 Tibetan Youth Congress refutes Chinese propaganda campaign on conditions in Tibet, saying more PLA troops are being stationed there and freedom of religion does not exist. [AC, 102]

JUN 29 Dalai Lama in Britain through July 3rd, meets with Duke of Westminster. [HC, 199] JUL 3-27 Dalai Lama visits Nepal. [HC, 199] JUL 25 Dalai Lama pleased with Chinese admissions of past errors in Tibet and apology to Tibetans, but says any return to Tibet is based upon solutions to present problems. [AC, 104] AUG 2 Dalai Lama's visit to New Jersey and plan to lecture at Harvard Divinity School. [NY] AUG 11 Dalai Lama says his return is up to the Tibetan people themselves. [AC, 105] AUG 19 China move of Lop Nur missile base to Nagchuka in Tibet brings major Indian cities within ICBM range. [AC, 105]

OCT 22 Chinese officials want to re-open Tibet-India border to trade, this from recent talks on pilgrimages by Indians to Kailash and Lake Mansorova. [AC, 106] NOV 1 Indian pilgrims to southwestern Tibet say monasteries were destroyed in Cultural Revolution. [NY]

NOV 5 Pema Gyalpo, Dalai Lama's sister, says Tibet still colonial nation even with recent Chinese liberalization campaign. [AC, 107]

DEC 3 China setting up ICBM bases in Tibet along Indian border. [AC, 108] 1982/

FEB 27 Charlotte Salisbury describes 20 years of turmoil in Chinese-occupied Tibet. [NY] MAR According to Lonely Planet's Tibet - A Travel Survival Kit, 2d (1992), Tibetans evacuated due to severe atmospheric pollution after nuclear test at Lop Nur. [] APR Three member team of negotiators from Dharamsala fly to Peking for talks on future of Tibet, led by Juchen Thubten Namgyal, including Phuntsog Tashi Takla and Lodi Gyari. China presents five points regarding the status of the Dalai Lama but refuses to discuss Tibetan view. [D3, 240]

JUL 27-29 Dalai Lama visits Malaysia. [HC, 199] JUL 29 Dalai Lama in Singapore through August 1st. [HC, 199] AUG 1-6 Dalai Lama visits Indonesia. [HC, 199] AUG 7-21 Dalai Lama in Australia. [HC, 199] SEP 11-13 Dalai Lama in the U.S.S.R. [HC, 199]

SEP 14-26 Dalai Lama again visits Mongolia. [HC, 199] SEP 18 Tinley Nyandak tells of massive Chinese military build-up in Tibet with half million troops. [NY]

SEP 26-27 Dalai Lama in Hungary. [HC, 199] SEP 27-28 Dalai Lama at the Vatican. [HC, 199] SEP 28 Dalai Lama visits Spain through October 4th. [HC, 199] SEP 28 Dalai Lama in Rome to meet Italian leaders. [NY] OCT 24 Dalai Lama visits West Germany through November 4th. [HC, 199] OCT 4-16 Dalai Lama in France. [HC, 199] OCT 16-25 Dalai Lama visits Italy. [HC, 199] 1983/

1983 Dalai Lama visits Switzerland, W. Germany, Austria and Turkey. [D2, 157] MAY 3 Chinese efforts to improve Tibetan life after disastrous ethnic policies. [NY] MAY 20 Lhasa religious upsurge described. Dalai Lama invited to Tibet by China, but he will not go while under occupation. [NY] MAY 24 Description of Tibetan burial, medicine, religion, and marriage traditions. [NY]

SEP Executions reported in Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse, and arrests in Chamdo and Karze in new round of Chinese repression. [D3, 244] OCT 1 Lobsang Wangchuk and four others scheduled for execution, in international protest he is sentenced to 18 more years in prison. [] OCT 3 Nepal Consul General says China executed five Tibetans. [NY]

OCT 16 China denies exile claim that six Tibetan dissidents killed. [NY]

DEC 25 Death of Dalai Lama's Senior Tutor, Ling Rinpoche. [D3, 217]


1984 Dalai Lama visits Japan, Britain, W. Germany and U.S., publishes Kindness, Clarity, and Insight in U.S. [D2]

FEB 26 Dalai Lama and 100,000 exiles profiled as preserving ancient culture and religion. [NY]

FEB 27 Dalai Lama critical of Chinese approach. [NY] MAR 11 Rally for Tibetan cause at United Nations to mark 25th anniversary of rebellion and one million Tibetan dead. [NY]

MAR 18 More than 50,000 Tibetan exiles urge U.N. to demand removal of Chinese troops from Tibet. [NY]

MAY In contradiction of Hu Yaobang's pledge, China begins policy of massive population transfer into Tibet as 60,000 Chinese recruited and offered financial incentives to settle in Tibet. [D3, 245]

MAY 14 Dalai Lama less likely to visit Tibet. [NY]

JUN 23 Avedon op-ed article says 34 years of occupation and seven years of secret negotiations have resulted in 1.2 million Tibetan deaths due to Chinese policies of starvation, forced labor, and imprisonment. [NY] SEP 7 China says Dalai Lama may send three-man delegation to Peking to plan visit to Tibet. [NY]

OCT 12 Three-member delegation to leave New Delhi for Peking on October 19th. [NY] OCT 17 Dalai Lama cancels plan to visit Tibet. [NY]

NOV Reagan elected to second term. [] DEC 26 China claims 200 tons of Tibetan Buddhist relics taken during Cultural Revolution have been returned to monasteries for restoration. [NY] 1985/

1985 Dalai Lama visits Switzerland, publishes Opening the Eye of Awareness in Britain. [D2, 157]

JAN 13 Joint Chiefs chair Vessey in Peking for high-level military talks. [NY] JAN 20 U.S. and China hold intensive discussions of weaponry and military policy. [NY] MAR 10 Lobsang Gyatso talks about situation in Tibet. [NY] APR 28 Nepal and China agree to allow travel through Himalayan passes. [NY] JUL 24 91 Members of Congress sign letter to Chinese President Li supporting direct talks between China and the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. []

JUL 24 Reagan meets with Li Xiannian in Washington and agrees to sell China nuclear reactors and technology. [NY]

AUG 9 Dalai Lama warns China is making massive transfer of Chinese settlers into Tibet. [NY]

SEP 1 Sen. Moynihan complains to Deng that China's U.N. voting record is opposite of U.S. policies. [NY]

SEP 2 China marks 20 years of TAR by re-asserting sovereignty over Tibet. [NY] OCT 15 Lobsang Samden dies at age 53. [NY]


1986 Dalai Lama visits W. Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Vatican, U.S.S.R., Italy and France, and delivers World Environmental Day message. [D2, 157] MAR 15 Op-ed article says lack of Western support for Tibetans adds to tragedy there. [NY]


1987 Dalai Lama visits Switzerland, W. Germany and U.S., and receives Leopold Lucas Prize in W. Germany. [D2, 157]

MAY 19 Reps. Gilman and Rose introduce H.R. 2476 condemning China for human rights abuses in Tibet and supporting Tibetan refugees. [CR, H3710] JUN 14 Review of Chinese destruction of monasteries and how Tibetan attempts to rebuild are a sign of resistance. [NY]

JUN 18 U.S. House of Representatives unanimously expresses grave concern to China over suffering of Tibetans in Foreign Relations Authorization Act. (H.R. 1777) [CR, H5217, H5230] JUN 23 Gargan article from Lhasa shows Tibetan opposition to Chinese settlers. [NY] JUL 13 Gargan writes from Samye monastery, Tibet's oldest, effort to rebuild after invasion and destruction by Chinese. [NY]

AUG 24 Avedon article in Wall Street Journal supports U.S. congressional actions favoring Tibet, condemns Chinese population-transfer policy, calls for neutral Tibet for Central Asian stability. []

SEP 18 China protests to U.S. on visit of Dalai Lama. []

SEP 21 Dalai Lama presents Five-Point Peace Plan before U.S. Congress. Text of Dalai Lama's statement. [CR, E3641]

SEP 22 Congressional letter to Zhao Ziyang calling for China to resolve Tibetan human rights situation and respond to Dalai Lama's plan. [CR, E3759]

SEP 25 Radio Lhasa announces death sentences for two Tibetans. [CR, E3758] SEP 27 21 monks from Drepung march in Lhasa shouting independence slogans, arrests follow. [DD, 21]

SEP 29 Lantos condemns Chinese execution of Tibetans. [CR, H7856]

OCT 1 60 Lhasan protesters arrested. A crowd of 2,000 tries to release them from front of police station. Police fire on demonstrators with at least seven killed. [DD, 21-23] OCT 1 China reports Lhasa protest led by monks calling for independence. May be arrests. China claims foreign involvement. [NY]

OCT 1 Representative Lantos says at least two Tibetans executed by China. [NY]

OCT 3 Thousands march for independence in Lhasa, six reported dead. China blames Dalai Lama. Review of Chinese invasion in 1950 and military rule since 1959. [NY] OCT 4 China blames Dalai Lama for protests. Dalai Lama opposes violence. China holding two Americans in custody. [NY]

OCT 5 China imposes curfew on Lhasa, release John Ackerly and Dr. Blake Kerr. [NY] OCT 6 Ninety Drepung monks in front of TAR government offices call for release of monks held since arrests of September 27th, armed police beat and arrest them. [DD, 23]

OCT 6 Chinese police invade Jokhang Cathedral in Lhasa arresting at least 20 since October 1st. Nine Tibetans reported killed. Peking hard-liners behind crackdown. Drepung silenced. [NY]

OCT 7 Reagan Administration supports Chinese repression of Tibet. U.S. Senate votes 98-0 to condemn China. Fourteen reported dead since October 1st demonstrations, Sixty arrests on October 6th of people shouting Dalai Lama's name. [NY]

OCT 8 Dalai Lama's news conference from Dharamsala, India: Supports Tibetan non-violent protest of Chinese rule; China cuts phone and telex from Tibet and bans entry to the territory. Editorial critical of Reagan Administration for not supporting Tibet. [NY] OCT 9 Chinese oust Western reporters from Tibet. [NY]

OCT 10 Chinese police plaster walls of monasteries with posters denouncing Dalai Lama. Fourteen journalists from six nations leave Tibet. Avedon op-ed article says U.S. should oppose Chinese oppression of Tibet. [NY]

OCT 11 Tibetans protesting influx of Chinese. Recent moderate Chinese policies in Tibet. [NY] OCT 12 Gargan article on Lhasa demonstrations, Kerr, Ackerly. [NY] OCT 14 Human rights in Tibet subject of House Foreign Affairs subcommittee hearing. [] OCT 15 West German Bundestag resolution on human rights violations by China in Tibet passes unanimously. []

OCT 15 Roy denies Reagan Administration supports Chinese actions against Tibet. [NY] OCT 17 Deng attacks U.S. Representatives and says Lantos group will not be allowed to visit Tibet. China outlaws gatherings in Lhasa and processions around Jokhang Cathedral. [NY]

OCT 18 Reagan Administration may seek to express disapproval of Tibet policy to China. [NY] OCT 19 Yangchen of Sikkim supports editorial of October 8th. [NY] OCT 20 Thirteen-member Tibetan delegation touring U.S. [NY]

OCT 21 California Democratic congressional delegation urges Reagan to pressure China on Tibetan rights. [] OCT 28 Thirteen arrested demonstrators released. [DD, 24]

NOV 1 Communists blame Dalai Lama for violence, he favors civil disobedience and peaceful means. [NY] NOV 4 Lobsang Wangchuk, an Amnesty International prisoner of conscience and prominent political and religious prisoner, dies at Drapchi Prison. []

NOV 10 Ganden Tri Rinpoche leads service for world peace and for all Tibetans who have died under Chinese occupation at St. John the Devine Church. []

NOV 13 Kerr and Ackerly witnessed demonstrations and were held by Chinese for three days. [NY] NOV 22 How Kerr and Ackerly were expelled from Tibet. [NY]

NOV 24 Rep. Conyers critical of Reagan Administration for opposing Senate vote on Tibetan rights. [NY] NOV 27 200 Tibetan students demonstrate at Rigong. [DD, 24]

DEC 22 Foreign Relations Authorization Act becomes law, includes section on human rights violations by China in Tibet and findings by Congress that China invaded and occupied Tibet. [] DEC 26 Yulo Dawa Tsering arrested, he becomes one of Tibet's most well-known political prisoner. [PW]

1988/ 1988 Dalai Lama visits Italy, W. Germany, Switzerland, the Vatican, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and France, and receives Albert Schweitzer Humanitarian Award. [D2, 157] JAN 5 Rosenthal on interview with Dalai Lama. [NY]

JAN 8 Rosenthal op-ed article critical of Reagan Administration for supporting China in Tibet. [NY]

JAN 9 Profile of Dharamsala Tibetan exile community and interview with the Dalai Lama. [NY] JAN 25 Associated Press reports more than 5,000 Tibetans imprisoned after October demonstrations, women and children included, enduring torture and starvation. [] FEB 4 Uneasy calm in Tibet. Despite jailings and repression, China worried about upcoming Prayer Festival. [NY]

FEB 16 Panchen Lama disputes official Chinese report that police did not fire at protesters last October. [NY]

FEB 28 BBC reports Lhasa besieged by thousands of Chinese security forces. [D3, 256] MAR 5 Hundreds of Tibetans march for independence outside the Jokhang, between 8-50 killed are mostly monks. One Chinese policeman dead. Chinese police invade Jokhang beating monks, up to 1,000 Tibetans imprisoned after shops burned. [DD, 24-26] MAR 6 Riots in Lhasa. [NY]

MAR 7 Three dead after monk shouts for independence at Jokhang, including one police officer. Monks had boycotted Prayer Festival. [NY] MAR 9 Failure of Chinese policies in Tibet, editorial says Americans should be concerned for Tibetans. [NY]

MAR 13 150 Tibetans demonstrate in New Delhi. [NY] MAR 30 According to the Christian Science Monitor, Dalai Lama will disavow campaign for Tibet if exiled activists resort to violence; Tibet communist party members reportedly oppose Beijing's repressive policies. [] MAR 23 Grunfeld letter reviews U.S. and Chinese policies on Tibet, links peace to Peking-Dalai Lama talks and border negotiations. [NY]

APR 5 China says Dalai Lama can live in Tibet if he gives up call for independence. Panchen Lama describes recent protests. [NY] APR 6 Dalai Lama rejects Chinese offer. [NY]

APR 7 Editorial supports negotiations between Dalai Lama and Chinese, says China must recognize Tibetan self-government. [NY] APR 19 Protests continue in Tibet, U.S. officials say China severely curtailing travel into Tibet. [NY] MAY 8 Visitor to Tibet says at least 18 monks killed in Lhasa in March. Chinese repression intensified, fewer than ten foreigners said to be living in Lhasa. [NY]

JUN 15 Dalai Lama's Strasbourg Proposals before European Parliament call for self-governing whole of Tibet (including U-Tsang, Kham and Amdo) in "association" with China. Negotiating team ready to meet Chinese. []

JUN 16 Dalai Lama says China may handle Tibetan foreign affairs and station troops. Western experts say China has tens of thousands of troops in Tibet as buffer with India. [NY] JUN 30 Dalai Lama signals Chinese leaders urging formal direct talks to resolve political situation in Tibet. [NY]

JUL 27 Kashag names five-member delegation for any future talks with China, headed by Tashi Wangdi and including Dutch lawyer Michael van Walt. [PW]

JUL 31 Asia Watch report on arrests and torture of Tibetans. Call for international concern. Criticism of Reagan administration. [NY]

AUG 9 Rosenthal plea for Tibet. [NY]

ngress calls for Chinese and U.S. governments to act on Dalai Lama's proposals. [] SEP 23 China says talks conditional on Tibet rejecting independence and Peking will not deal with Kashag or foreigners. [PW] SEP 25 China imposes curfew on travellers in Tibet. [PW] SEP 30 Massive Chinese security forces close the Jokhang Temple square in Lhasa. [PW] OCT 5 Council of Europe Assembly declaration supporting Tibetan human rights. []

OCT 6 Far Eastern Economic Review article on potential China-Tibet talks. [] OCT 11 Senator Leahy's trip to China and especially to Lhasa in Tibet. [CR, S15501-15509] OCT 13 Far Eastern Economic Review article on Tibet and Dalai Lama. []

. [] OCT 14 European Parliament resolution urges China to respect Tibetan rights. [] OCT 14 New wave of refugees reportedly fleeing Tibet. [PW] OCT 14 Senator Helms statement on Tibet. [CR, S16107] OCT 19 Australian Parliament member proposal urging China to negotiate with the Dalai Lama. [PW] OCT 26 Dalai Lama proposes Geneva talks on Tibet for next January. [PW] NOV Bush elected President. []

NOV 13 Los Angeles Times says twenty monks arrested for truthfully answering Chinese questionnaire as to whether China should withdraw from Tibet. []

DEC 7 Communist party leader in Tibet sacked by China, stepped-up efforts to stop protests. [NY] DEC 9 Chinese police forces increased in Lhasa. [DD, 26] DEC 10 Tibetans celebrating International Human Rights Day and calling for independence in Lhasa are shot by Chinese forces. Tibetan Government-in-Exile says 18 dead and 130 injured. [DD, 26]

DEC 11 Chinese troops open fire on protesters in Lhasa killing two. China claims lamas and nuns waved flags in support of independence. Media blackout prevents confirmation of story. [NY]

DEC 12 China says monk killed and 13 wounded by warning shots fired during demonstration. [NY]

DEC 19 Sixty Tibetan students march through Peking to protest police shooting in their country. [NY]


Dalai Lama visits U.S. twice, Costa Rica, Mexico, France, W. Germany and Norway, and performs Kalachakra Initiation at Santa Monica, California. [D2, 157] JAN Proposed Geneva discussions between Tibet and China scuttled by Chinese preconditions. [D3, 259] JAN 2 Lhasa demonstration by hundreds of students. [NY] JAN 3 Tibetans in India challenge Prime Min. Rajiv Gandhi's assertion of Chinese sovereignty over Tibet in December 1988 statement while he visited Peking. [NY]

JAN 27 Death of the Seventh Panchen Lama. [PW] JAN 30 Panchen Lama dies at age 50, crucial figure in Chinese policy towards Tibet. [NY] FEB 7 Tibetan flag raised over the Jokhang. [DD, 27]

FEB 16 Chinese leaders memorialize Panchen Lama, praise his opposition to Tibetan independence. [NY]

MAR 5 Peaceful Lhasa protest attacked by police firing into crowd and using tear-gas, beginning three days of demonstrations leaving 80-150 Tibetans and one Chinese policeman dead. [DD, 27-30]

MAR 6 Hundreds stage independence rally in Lhasa, police open fire with eleven deaths. [NY]

MAR 7 U.S. questions use of police force in Lhasa, but does not file official protest. [NY] MAR 7 China declares martial law in Tibet. [DD, 30]

MAR 8 China imposes martial law in Lhasa as protests continue for third day. Twelve dead and more than 100 wounded. Most serious challenge to Chinese rule since 1959 uprising. [NY]

MAR 9 Tourists and journalists expelled from the Tibetan Autonomous Region by China. [DD, 29]

MAR 9 Thousands of Chinese troops occupy Lhasa, Tibetans terrorized by security forces. Dalai Lama's Office issues strong protest. [NY]

MAR 10 Police interrogate Tibetans. Sixteen dead. Capital Area Friends of Tibet plan demonstration in Washington D.C. Editorial says U.S. should acknowledge Dalai Lama's political standing and support cultural and religious autonomy for Tibet. [NY] MAR 11 Mass arrests in Lhasa. Dalai Lama asks Deng to lift martial law and attend talks on Tibet's future. [NY]

MAR 12 Chinese rule over Tibet called inept and brutal. [NY]

MAR 15 European Parliament resolution on human rights in Tibet calls for lifting of martial law and respect for a constitutionally autonomous status of Tibet. U.S. Senate Res. 82 urges China to end human rights abuses in Tibet and calls for Administration to propose a United Nations observer team to monitor situation in Tibet. [] MAR 20 China unusually harsh in condemning Senate resolution on repression in Tibet. [NY]

MAR 22 Dalai Lama urges China, West, and supporters to save Tibetan culture, says non-violence only real method. [NY]

MAR 28 Foreign Min. Qian attacks Congress for criticizing policies on Tibet, wants new U.S.-China relations. [NY]

nce martial law declared in Tibet. [NY] APR 13 Martial law preceded by several weeks of protests, signs posted in December 1988 for Tibetans to mark International Human Rights Day. [NY]

MAY 7 Concern for 14,000 Tibetan exiles in Nepal as Indian economic blockade pushes Nepal to rely more on China. [NY]

MAY 16 U.S. House Concurrent Res. 63 urges China to allow international humanitarian groups access to prisons in Tibet, urges President and Sec. of State to raise human rights violations in U.S. China policy. []

JUN 4 Tienanmen Square massacre: thousands of Chinese pro-democracy demonstrators are fired on in crushing blow by Chinese military. []

JUN 28 Dalai Lama in New York says Chinese actions of arrest and execution will not succeed in crushing democracy, in Tibet violent repression has not worked. [NY]

JUL 25 Rosenthal column on U.S. failure to officially meet with Dalai Lama. [NY] AUG International conference on Tibet held at New Delhi. [PW]

SEP 2 Small protest by nuns in Lhasa. [DD, 30] SEP 14 China sentences ten Tibetans to prison or death for pro-independence activities. [NY] SEP 22 Nuns protest in Lhasa. [DD, 30]

SEP 30 Another small protest by nuns in Lhasa. [DD, 30]

violent campaign to end Chinese rule over Tibet. Profile and photos. New autobiography to be published in 1990. [NY] OCT 8 China indignant over award, accuses Dalai Lama of breaking Chinese national unity. Dalai Lama happy award may help Tibetans and money less important. [NY] OCT 10 Rosenthal tribute to Dalai Lama. [NY]

OCT 11 Hundreds of Lhasans celebrate Peace Prize award despite martial law, also on the 12th. [DD, 30]

OCT 13 Nobel CommitteVe said to have selected Dalai Lama in part to bolster democracy movement in China. [NY]Votest in Lhasa amid high security. [DD, 30]

DEC 9 Chinese soldiers limit access to the Barkor. [PW] DEC 10 Sera and Drepung monks locked in their monasteries by authorities to prevent demonstrations. [PW]

DEC 11 Dalai Lama accepts Nobel Peace Prize. Chinese Communist Party bitterly opposed. Nepal outlaws public Tibetan celebrations of award. [NY] 1990/

JAN 17 China letter to U.N. Special Rapporteur on Torture denies Tseten Norgyal in prison. [DD]

JAN 19 China's U.S. Ambassador Zhu letter to Sen. Leahy says Tseten Norgyal imprisoned. [DD]

FEB U.S. State Department human rights report cites China for numerous violations in Tibet. China responds with furious indignation. [PW] FEB 2-6 Dalai Lama given rousing welcome during five-day visit to Czechoslovakia. [PW]

MAR 11 A group of nuns protest in Lhasa, waving a Tibetan flag from the roof of the Jokhang Temple. Chinese tanks are stationed in the Jokhang square. [PW] APR 10 Vaclav Havel renews call to support Tibet. [PW] APR 24 Start of two-day public hearings on Tibet by European Parliament. [PW] APR 25 Dalai Lama announces plan to democratize and reform Tibetan independence movement, renewing call for negotiations with China. [PW] APR 30 Martial law lifted after thirteen months. [DD] MAY China announces plan to expand birth control in Tibet. [PW]

MAY 7 China tightens restrictions on travel to Tibet. [PW] MAY 12 Tibetan Government in exile elects a new Cabinet. [PW] MAY 13 U.S. Congress declares human rights day for Tibet and China. [PW]

MAY 18 China announces it has executed two Tibetans at Lhasa. [PW] MAY 23 European Parliament decides to send special mission to investigate human rights in Tibet. [PW]

MAY 24 Start of two-day International Convention on Tibet and Asian Peace at Tokyo, supporting Tibetan self-determination. [PW]

MAY 29 Asia Watch releases new report on repression in Tibet. [PW] JUN Central Conference of American Rabbis calls for President Bush to meet with the Dalai Lama and for Congress to support U.S. visas for Tibetans. [PW] JUN A University of Illinois legal delegation visits Tibet. Chinese officials tell them Tibetans are committing sabotage against power and communication facilities. [PW]

JUN 4 China announces new population census for Tibet Autonomous Region. [PW] JUN 8 Small demonstration in Lhasa. [DD] JUN 8 Lhasang Tsering and Jamyang Norbu visit Seattle as part of U.S. and Canadian tour. [PW]

JUN 16 Start of two-day Tibet conference in New York, attended by more than 200 people from over 50 support groups in North America. [PW] JUL 8 Thirty members of parliament from 17 countries

call for Tibetan self-determination at three-day International Consultation on Tibet conference in London. Six nations have observers and the Foreign Minister of Tibet's Government in exile attends. [PW] AUG 20 Small demonstration in Lhasa. [DD]

SEP Several small demonstrations in Lhasa. [DD]

SEP 21 I.C.T. reports on Chinese repression of Tibetan Buddhism in Los Angeles Times. [] OCT U.S. State Department representative allowed to inspect Drapchi Prison in Lhasa. [DD] OCT 1 Chinese interference in the search for the next Panchen Lama. [NY] OCT 7 Tibetans still desire independence after 30 years of Communist rule. [NY]

OCT 21 Taiwan reasserts sovereignty over Tibet and Mongolia. [PW] OCT 22 Description of Fred Shapiro's visit to Tibet appears in The New Yorker. [PW] OCT 27 Endangered Tibet environmental conference held at San Francisco. [PW] NOV Scandinavian diplomats allowed to inspect Drapchi Prison in Lhasa. [DD] NOV 29 Congress approves and the President signs legislation providing humanitarian assistance and immigrant visas for Tibetan refugees. [PW]

DEC Dalai Lama distributes 40 million seeds at Kalachakra rite at Sarnath, India, towards restoring fruit-bearing trees. [PW] DEC 3 Dalai Lama's North American representative Rinchen Dharlo demands a public apology for insensitive remarks by U.S. Ambassador to China James Lilley. [PW] 1991/ FEB Tibetan Government in Exile is a founding member of Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. []

MAR 2 China orders the Barkor, circular pilgrimage route in central Lhasa, to be excavated by bulldozers. [PW] MAR 10 Start of the International Year of Tibet, Tibetan Royal Year 2118, an international effort to focus world attention on the Tibet issue. [PW] MAR 17 Five monks arrested in Lhasa for pro-independence march. [PW]

MAR 18 Dalai Lama urges Britain to stand up to China's occupation of Tibet during second day of six-day visit. Prime Minister Major is widely criticized for refusing to meet with him. [PW] MAR 20 Dalai Lama meets with a British government official for the first time since 1950, seeing Lord Mackay, the Lord Chancellor, Britain's senior legal officer. [PW] MAR 22 Greenpeace reports on a plan by a U.S. company to dump municipal sewage sludge in Tibet. The proposal is later dropped. [PW]

MAR 24 Dalai Lama begins U.S. visit in Boston, with plans to stop in New York, Ohio, Texas, New Mexico, California and Washington, D.C. [PW] MAR 28 China lodges an official protest with Britain for the Dalai Lama's recent visit there and meeting with Lord Mackay. [PW]

APR Earth Island chairman David Brower calls for international effort to restore Tibet's damaged environment. [PW] APR 16 Historic first meeting between the Dalai Lama and a U.S. President, George Bush invites His Holiness to the White House. [PW] APR 17 Dalai Lama is honored at the U.S. Capitol Rotunda by Congressional leaders. The Senate adopts a resolution supporting human rights and freedom in Tibet. [PW] APR 18 China issues a strong protest at the official U.S. reception of the Dalai Lama. [] APR 24 China protests the new U.S. Voice of America Tibetan broadcasts. [PW] MAY PBS in New York broadcasts Tibet in Exile, a documentary on childrens' escape from occupied Tibet and the exile community in Dharamsala. [PW] MAY Extensive description of Tibet's situation in Vanity Fair article by Alex Shoumatoff. [PW] MAY 5 In a letter to the editor to the Washington Post, a Chinese spokesman denies that China has forced Tibetans to practice family planning or enforced abortions or sterilizations. [PW]

MAY 20 Six Tibetan prisoners are given extra five-year sentences for raising home-made Tibetan flags while in jail. [PW]

MAY 23 Wall Street Journal reports Chinese authorities celebrate 40 years of rule over Tibet. Foreign journalists are barred from Lhasa. [TI] MAY 27 Arrests of protesters reported in Lhasa. [TI]

MAY 31 China denies killing a Tibetan demonstrator. [TI] JUN 4 More demonstrations reported in Lhasa. [TI] JUN 12 Lodi G. Gyari testifies before the House subcommittee on Trade concerning the extension of China's Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. [PW] JUN 25 19 Chinese military officers killed in crash of U.S.-made helicopter in Tibet. [TI] JUL The Dalai Lama is profiled in Scientific American. JUL 10 Dalai Lama leaves India for visit to the Soviet Union. [TI]

JUL 11 ABC televises its Prime Time Live segment on the Chinese repression of Tibet. [PW] JUL 19 Dalai Lama praises glasnost after his six-day visit to the Buddhist Buryatia region. [PW]

JUL 25 Start of six-day visit to the Kalmyk Republic by the Dalai Lama. [PW] AUG 10 Tibetan doctor at Lhasa reportedly sentenced to 13-year jail term for copying a list of those injured and arrested in previous demonstrations. [PW] AUG 14 Six nuns and monks demonstrate in Lhasa, reportedly becoming an almost weekly occurrence. [PW]

AUG 16 Dalai Lama meets with the Prince of Lichtenstein. [PW] AUG 18 Description of how support for Tibet has blossomed since the Tienanmen Square massacre. [NY] AUG 19 Dalai Lam

a meets with the Swiss Foreign Minister. [PW] AUG 21 Report on the resettlement of 1,000 displaced Tibetans into the United States. [NY] AUG 23 United Nations Human Rights Sub-Commission passes resolution criticizing China for human rights violation in Tibet. [PW]

AUG 23 European Parliament delegation finishes four-day visit to Lhasa. [PW] SEP 2 Tibetan Government in exile announces the Dalai Lama is no longer bound by his Strasbourg proposal of 1988. He remains fully committed to a non-violent solution to Tibet's status. [PW]

SEP 5 Report of a failed 1990 uprising in southern Xinjiang province bordering Tibet and the rising hopes of Tibetans, Kazakhs and Uzbeks for independence. [NY] SEP 9 Description of Chinese dominance over Tibetans through population transfer and forced sterilization in Qinghai. [NY]

SEP 10 Report on China's vast prison camp system or "laogai" in Qinghai, formerly Amdo province of Tibet. [NY]

SEP 20 Tibetans call for examination of Panchen Lama's body by international experts as new evidence of foul play is alleged. [PW] SEP 23 International Campaign for Tibet issues a report documenting the large-scale relocation of Chinese civilians into eastern Tibet. [PW] SEP 23 Report on China's cultural conquest and domination of Qinghai, formerly Tibet's Amdo province. [NY]

SEP 24 U.S. Senate and House agree that Tibet is an occupied country in new legislation. [PW]

SEP 27 Dalai Lama begins visit to Mongolia. [TI] SEP 29 China orders the army and police in Lhasa to shoot Tibetans staging pro-independence demonstrations. [PW]

OCT 4 Dalai Lama visits Latvia. [TI]

OCT 9 Dalai Lama urges world support and pressure on China to allow his return to Tibet on a fact-finding mission. [NY]

OCT 11 China calls on the Dalai Lama to abandon Tibetan independence before a return to Tibet. [NY] OCT 13 Dalai Lama calls for nuclear disarmament. [TI] OCT 21 Senior Chinese diplomat calls on foreign governments to ban meetings of supporters of Tibetan independence in their own countries. [PW] OCT 28 President Bush signs bill containing declaration by Congress that Tibet is an occupied country whose true representatives are the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government in exile. [PW]

OCT 31 China announces additional screening process for tourists planning to visit Tibet via Chengdu. [PW] NOV 1 Chinese "White Paper" on human rights glosses over abuses in Tibet as China tries to take the initiative against growing world public opinion. [PW] NOV 7 China condemns October declaration that Tibet is an occupied country as interference in her internal affairs. [PW]

NOV 8 Art review of the New York appearance of "Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet" at the I.B.M. Gallery of Science and Art. [NY] NOV 24 Review of Chinese attempts to educate Tibetan youths sent away from Tibet to study in China. [NY] NOV 26 U.S. House of Representatives votes to condition China's Most Favored Nation trade status upon progress in human rights and other issues, including specifically Tibet. [PW]

DEC 2 Dalai Lama meets with British Prime Minister John Major. Kalon Tashi Wangdi, minister in the exiled Tibetan Government, also attends. [PW] DEC 3 Dalai Lama in London outlines plans for a democratic transitional government in a future free Tibet. [PW] DEC 14 Li Peng limits talks with the Dalai Lama according to the Los Angeles Times. [] DEC 31 Dangers of increased Chinese surveillance against foreign journalists to Tibetans cited. [NY] 1992/

1992 Richard Nixon recommends the creation of a Radio Free Tibet by the U.S. in his book Seize the Moment. [PW] 1992 Al Gore cites China's armed subjugation of Tibet and its threat to Tibet's ecology in his book Earth in the Balance. [PW] JAN 6 China reportedly moving its nuclear test site from Lop Nur to the town of Alar at the Xinjiang-Tibet border. [PW] JAN 7 U.S. Congressional delegation visits Tibetan settlements in India and meets with the Tibetan Government in exile. [PW] FEB 22 Jampa Tenzin, a 49-year-old monk and a symbol of the independence movement, found dead under suspicious circumstances at the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa. [PW] FEB 27 Lithuanian parliamentary deputies pledge to support an aspiring Tibetan nation in international organizations and forums. [PW] FEB 29 Tibetans and supporters rally at the White House for U.S. support of U.N. action on Tibetan human rights. [PW]

MAR 2 Jeane Kirkpatrick accuses China of genocide in Tibet in Washington Post. [] MAR 3 Washington Post editorial urges U.S. to support Tibetan autonomy from China. [] MAR 4 U.N. Human Rights Commission considers a resolution on Tibet at Geneva meeting, but no action is taken. The Bush Administration pushes for language supporting China's claim to Tibet. [PW] MAR 18 U.S. Senate resolution unanimously urges the Bush Administration to support Tibetan human rights at the U.N. [CR] MAR 25 Christian Science Monitor article urges U.S. to condemn Chinese repression in Tibet. []

APR 1 U.S. Congressional legislation grants $1.5 million to the Tibetan Government in exile as continuing humanitarian assistance to Tibetan refugees. [PW] APR 6 China denies visas to two U.S. Senators to visit Tibet, saying the timing was "inconvenient." [NY] APR 8 New York Times editorial urges further senatorial action investigating Tibetan rights. [NY] APR 18 Dalai Lama urges Tibetan refugees about to enter the U.S. to be good ambassadors. [NY] MAY Dalai Lama visits Australia for two weeks, drawing large crowds. He meets with Foreign Minister Evans. [TI] MAY 11 Dalai Lama sees a free Tibet within 10 years and speaks of returning. [TI] MAY 13 Wall Street Journal says China plans a Special Economic Zone for Tibet in the hope of attracting foreign investment. [TI] MAY 14 Long denied refugee status, first of 1,000 Tibetans admitted to U.S. under 1990 Immigration Act. [NY]

MAY 20 Amnesty International reports use of torture by Chinese against Tibetans. [SF] MAY 21 Tibetan monks and nuns protest for independence. [TI] MAY 28 China opposes Dalai Lama's planned address at upcoming Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. [TI] JUN 3 Chinese Army engaged in construction projects in Tibet. [TI] JUN 4 Exiled Tibetans express solidarity with Chinese pro-democracy movement. [TI] JUN 11 Monks arrested in northeastern Tibet. [TI] JUN 12 Dalai Lama calls for global demilitarization. Report presented at Rio Conference on environmental destruction in Tibet. [TI]

JUN 15 Resettlement of Tibetans at Boston described in Boston Globe. [TI] JUN 21 Significant unrest reported in Tibetan countryside and increase in pro-independence activity. [NY]

JUN 28 China reportedly resuming contact with Dalai Lama. [TI] JUL 5 Dicki Gyamcho comments on Tibetan Resettlement Project in U.S. [NY] JUL 14 I.C.L.T. publishes report on the Relationship Between Environmental Management and Human Rights in Tibet. []

JUL 28 U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee holds historic first session on Tibet, "U.S. and Chinese policies toward occupied Tibet." Current Bush administration policies are heavily criticized. [TI]

AUG 12 Congressional staff report on the condition of Tibetan exile communities and government in India and Nepal. [CR]

SEP 22 China issues "white paper" claiming ownership of Tibet and defending human rights abuses there. [TI] SEP 28 China claims to have approved the selected of the 17th Karmapa. [TI] SEP 29 I.C.L.T. publishes report on Environmental Conditions in Occupied Tibet. [] OCT 2 Senate fails to override veto of MFN renewal conditions for China by Bush. [TI]

OCT 5 Tibetan Youth Congress calls for end to contacts with an intransigent China. [TI] OCT 14 In Seattle, Lodi Gyari calls on U.S. help to stop cultural genocide by China in Tibet. [TI]

OCT 23 Amnye Machen Institute plans to translate world literature into Tibetan. [SF] NOV 3 Clinton elected President. [] NOV 3 Tibet information office to open in Australia. [TI] NOV 5 Dalai Lama congratulates Clinton as Tibetans seek favorable change in U.S. policy. [TI] NOV 11 Israel plans to develop potassium mining in Tibet. [TI] NOV 12 China acknowledges 4,000 political prisoners being held in Chinese jails. [TI] NOV 15 Resettlement of Tibetans in Los Angeles described in Los Angeles Times. [TI] NOV 20

In Strasbourg, Permanent Peoples' Tribunal session and verdict on Tibet scores China for human rights violations, population transfers into Tibet, and the partition of Tibet, declaring Tibet to be under foreign domination. [TI] NOV 25 Break by China reported in human rights dialogue with the U.S. [NY] DEC 1 Chen Kuiyuan replaces Hu Jintao as Communist party chief in Tibet. [TI] DEC 5 China moving major regional military headquarters to the Lhasa area of Tibet. [TI] DEC 7 Senators Pell and Levin make one-day visit to Tibet. [TI] DEC 15 Resettlement of Tibetans in Chicago described in Chicago Tribune. [TI] DEC 27 Tibet Information Network reports harsh sentences for protesting monks and nuns. [NY]


FEB 14 Communists call for purge in Tibet. [NY] FEB 21 Book reviews of Invading Tibet and Lost Lhasa. [NY] FEB 27 Official Chinese report warns of widespread social unrest in 1993 throughout China. [UP] MAR 4 U.S. to attach human rights conditions to renewal of China's MFN status. Christopher says Chinese treatment of Tibet is improper. [AP] MAR 10 Dalai Lama announces willingness to open peace talks with China, despite China's human rights record. [UP] MAR 10 Geshe Tsultim Gyeltsen's column on China's 'final solution' in Tibet in Los Angeles Times. [] MAR 10-11 Conference on the Work of External Propaganda on the Question of Tibet held in Beijing. Chinese plan to sow dissention in the Tibetan community in exile. [TB, 11-12/93]

MAR 15 Fifteen monks arrested during protest. [NY] MAR 25-29 Canadian minister Joe Clark in Beijing for talks with China, most senior visit since Tienanmen crackdown of 1989. [] MAR 29 Attempt by China to control Tibetan politics through religion in Christian Science Monitor. [] APR U.S. State Dept. publishes Spring issue of Geographic and Global Issues Quarterly showing Tibetan demographics, including a growth rate of 18.6% from 1982-90. [] APR 13 Richard Gere column critical of U.S. policy towards China over Tibet. [NY] APR 16 Editorial says Tibet continues to suffer under Chinese rule. [NY] APR 19 ICT reports Chinese nuclear waste in Qinghai. [NY] APR 25 Washington Post editorial says Clinton should put Tibet ahead of Chinese trade in MFN renewal. [] APR 27 Rosenthal column cites Chinese for ethnic cleansing against Tibetans. [NY] APR 28 Clinton meets Dalai Lama and pledges help with human rights violations by China. [NY] APR 29 Wall Street Journal report says Tibetan exiles optimistic that world now paying attention to their cause. [] APR 30 Washington Post article profiles the Dalai Lama. [] MAY 2 Dalai Lama given personal tour of Monticello. [AP] MAY 2 Reuters reports on Dalai Lama's two-week visit to Britain, which officially regards Tibet as an autonomous region within China and the Dalai Lama as leader of a self-proclaimed government in exile. [] MAY 10 Clinton's difficult path regarding Tibet and MFN status for China in Wall Street Journal article. [] MAY 12 Senior Chinese military, intelligence and provincial officials decide on massive transfer of Chinese settlers into Tibet. [TB, 11-12/93] MAY 18 Heinous Chinese persecution in Tibet is ignored by large U.S. companies according to Washington Post article. [] MAY 23 European ambassadors in Tibet cancel plans in protest of arrest of dissidents by China. [NY]

MAY 25 Tibetans stage biggest protest since 1989. [NY] MAY 28 Wall Street Journal cites China's failed cover-up of political protest in Lhasa. [] JUN 9 I.C.L.T. publishes report on Resolving Claims of Self-Determination: A Proposal for Integrating Principles of International Law With Specific Application to the Tibetan People. [] AUG Report of U.S. trade sanctions against China for M-11 missile technology transfer to Pakistan. [SF, 1/24/94] AUG 24 TIN reports four Tibetan nuns arrested in Lhasa. [NY] 12 SEP Chairman of the Kashag, Kalon Tenzin N. Tethong, paid a month-long visit to USA and Canada. [TB, 11-12/93] 18 SEP Dalai Lama on life in exile and oppression by China. [NY]

OCT 1 Dalai Lama guest speaker at informal meeting in New Delhi attended by 22 diplomats from 15 African countries sympathetic to Tibet's plight. [TB, 11-12/93] OCT 2 Gendun Rinchen faces death penalty for attempting to tell human rights delegation about Tibetan political prisoners. [NY] OCT 16 U.S.-Chinese consular agreement on U.S. consulate in Tibet seen as Beijing's concession to US human rights diplomacy. Shortly thereafter, Beijing returns the remains of American military personnel killed over Tibet during the Second World War. [BB, 1/4/94] OCT 24 The Dalai Lama pays a three-week visit to Europe during which he visits France, Germany and the United Kingdom. [TB, 11-12/93] OCT 25-31 First-ever Tibet Week in Russia held in the historical city of St.Petersburg organized by the Friends of Tibet Society. [TB, 11-12/93] OCT 25 Dalai Lama addresses a press conference in France during which he describes the situation in Tibet, the role of media and his wish for Tibet becoming a zone of peace. He also suggests that some parts of Tibet, including old Lhasa, be declared a World Heritage and mentions that he has made such an appeal to UNESCO. [TB, 11-12/93] OCT 28 European Parliament tells China that their relations will only improve when Beijing provides information about political prisoners in China and Tibet in a motion passed in Strasbourg, France. [TB, 11-12/93]

NOV 1 Dalai Lama leaves for London via Geneva to unveil a wax statue of himself at Madame Tussauds. [TB, 11-12/93] NOV 4 Dalai Lama officially received at the French National Assembly by its President, Mr. Philippe Seguin. [TB, 11-12/93] NOV 10 Jiang Zemin in an address to top Chinese leaders warns that unrest by religious and ethnic minorities will be crushed. [TB, 11-12/93] NOV 16 Dalai Lama received by the mayor of Paris, Mr. Jacques Chirac. Foreign Minister Alain Juppe is also present. His Holiness is also received by President Francois Mitterand in the Elysee Palace shortly before returning to Dharamsala. [TB, 11-12/93] NOV 19 President Clinton tells Chinese President Jiang Zemin that the U.S. is urging China to negotiate with the Dalai Lama or his representatives. []

NOV 20-21 Fourth general assembly of the Allied Committee of the Peoples of Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia, Manchuria and Tibet held in Munich pledges closer cooperation in struggles against Chinese Communist oppression. [TB, 11-12/93] NOV 28 Interview with the Dalai Lama. [NY] DEC 10 Wall Street Journal special report on China fails to mention Tibet, espousing MFN trade status over human rights concerns. [] DEC 18 South China Morning Post says U.S. review of China policy tending to revoke MFN trade status due to China's lack of progress on human rights issues. China may deflect revocation by making small effort to contact Dalai Lama. [] DEC 21 Wall Street Journal announces U.N. General Assembly action to establish world's first high commissioner for human rights. []

DEC 28 China says it will disband Hong Kong's legislature and elected bodies after resuming control in 1997 according to Wall Street Journal article. [] 1994/ JAN 12 Draft State Department report on human rights concludes that China has not made sufficient progress linked to renewal of MFN trade status. [SF] JAN 13 Wall Street Journal says U.S. Customs Service is not receiving Chinese cooperation to ensure China is not exporting prison-made goods to the U.S. [] JAN 15 Representative Gephart says China will make positive efforts on human rights after U.S. delegation to Beijing meets with Jiang Zemin. [NY]

JAN 23 Secretary of State Christopher urges Chinese Foreign Minister Qian towards high-level talks with the Dalai Lama. The U.S. is also seeking information on 100 Tibetan prisoners. [AP] JAN 23 Book review section features cover photograph of a Qinghai forced labor camp. [SF] JAN 24 U.S. says China not meeting conditions for renewal of MFN trade status. Lhasa described as being under particularly ruthless control. Despite earlier reports, U.S. permits sale of three satellites to China. [SF] JAN 31 U.S. News & World Report says U.S. is pressuring China to release a handful of Tibetan political prisoners.

Readers wishing to consult more of the official Chinese point of view may want to examine the following chronologies:

Tibet: 1950-1967. Hong Kong: Union Research Institute, 1968.

China's Foreign Relations: a Chronology of Events (1949-1988). 1st ed. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1989.

Tibet Justice Center would like to thank Pillsbury Madison & Sutro for support of this project. Founded in 1874, Pillsbury Madison & Sutro is a leading international law firm with more than 600 attorneys practicing virtually every area of law in seven California cities, Washington, D.C., Tokyo, and Hong Kong. Continuing to build on its tradition of service, Pillsbury remains responsive to the ever-changing needs of its clients.

© 1991, 1993, 1994 Ken Herold
All Rights Reserved
February, 1994
Pamela K. Draken
Pillsbury Madison & Sutro
Rosalynn Robinso
Threshold Foundation

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