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Peace Treaty Between Ladakh and Tibet at Tingmosgang (1684) [372]




The Drukpa (red sect) Omniscient Lama, named My-pham-wang-po, who in his former incarnations had always been the patron Lama of the kings of Ladak, from generation to generation, was sent from Lhasa to Tashis-gang, to arrange the conditions of a treaty of peace-for the Ladak king could never refuse to abide by the decision of the Omniscient One. It was agreed as follows:

1. The boundaries fixed, in the beginning, when king Skyed-Ida-ngeema-gon gave a kingdom to each of his three sons, shall still be maintained.

2. Only Ladakis shall be permitted to enter into Ngarees-khor-sum wool trade.

3. No person from Ladak, except the royal trader of the Ladak Court, shall be permitted to enter Rudok.

4. A royal trader shall be sent by the Deywa Zhung (i.e. the Grand Lama of Lhasa), from Lhasa to Ladak, once a year, with 200 horse-loads of tea.

5. A "Lo-chhak" shall be sent every third year from Leh to Lhasa with presents. As regards the quality and value of presents brought for all ordinary Lamas, the matter is of no consequence, but to the Labrang Chhakdzot shall be given the following articles, viz:

(a) Gold dust - the weight of 1 zho 10 times.

(b) Saffron - the weight of 1 srang (or thoorsrang) 10 times.

(c) Yarkhand cotton cloths - 6 pieces. (d) Thin cotton cloth - 1 piece.

The members of the Lapchak Mission shall be provided with provisions, free of cost, during their stay at Lhasa, and for the journey they shall be similarly provided with 200 baggage animals, 25 riding ponies, and 10 servants. For the uninhabited portion of the journey, tents will be supplied for the use of the Mission.

6. The country of Ngaress-khor-sum shall be given to the Omniscient Drukpa Lama, Mee-pham-wang-po, and in lieu thereof the Deywa Zhung wil give to the Ladak king three other districts (in Great Tibet).

7. The revenue of the Ngarees-khor-sum shall be set aside for the purpose of defraying the cost of sacrificial lamps, and of religious ceremonies to be performed at Lhasa.

8. But the king of Ladak reserves to himself the village (or district?) of Monthser (i.e. Minsar) in Ngarees-khor-sum, that he may be independent there; and he sets aside its revenue for the purpose of meeting the expense involved in keeping up the sacrificial lights at Kang-ree (i.e. Kailas), and the Holy Lakes of Manasarwar and Rakas Tal.

With reference to the first clause of the treaty, it may be explained that, roughly speaking, king Skyed-Ida-ngeema-gon gave the following territories to his sons:

a. To the eldest son - The countries now know as Ladak and Purig extending from Hanley on the east to the Zojila Pass on the west, and including Rudok and the Gogpo gold district.

b. To the second son - Goo gey, Poorang and certain other small districts.

c. To the third son - Zangskar, Spiti, and certain other small districts.


1. Source: The Indian Society of International Law, The Sino-Indian Boundary (New Delhi, 1962), pp. 12. Reprinted by permission.

Reproduced from M. C. van Walt van Praag's Status of Tibet: History, Rights and Prospects in International Law. With permission of the author.

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