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Agreement Between Tibet and Kashmir (1852) [375]



Concluded between the two Garpons or provincial Governors appointed by the Dalai Lama and the representatives of the Maharaja of Kashmir

This is dated the third day of the month of the Water Bull Year (apparently 1852).

The Ladakis refusing to supply the Tibetan Government trader Ke-Sang Gyurme with the usual transport animals on account of the decreased tea trade, the Nyer-pas of the Garpons were deputed to enquire about this matter and to investigate the boundary dispute between Ladak and Tibet. A meeting was accordingly arranged between Ladak Thanadar Sahib Bastiram and Kalon Rinzin accompanied by his servant Yeshe Wangyal and an agreement was made as follows:

In the future the Ladakis will supply the Tibetan Government traders with the usual transport requirements without any demur. The joint Te-jis ("Teji" is a Tibetan title which the then Garpons with have held) will request their Government to appoint only intelligent and capable men to take the annual tribute to Tibet. The Ladakis shall provide the Tibetan Government traders with accommodation and servants as usual and render them any further assistance according to the old-established custom. The Garpons will issue orders to the effect that tea and woollen goods arriving at Nagari shall only be sent to Ladak and not to any other place. The boundary between Ladak and Tibet will remain the same as before. No restriction shall be laid by the people of Rudok on the export of salt and woollen goods and the import of barley flour and barley. Neither party shall contravene the existing rules and the rates of Customs duties and market supplies shall be fixed by both parties concerned. The above rules shall apply also to the Rongpas (people inhabiting the valley countries), who export salt. The travellers from North and West who come through Rong are given passports by the Thanadar they are liable to customs duties as prescribed in their passports. Should any of them be unable to produce his passport, he shall be made to pay fifty times the amount ordinarily recoverable from him. No case will be heard against such recoveries made by the Customs Officer. In deciding all important matters the rule shall take into consideration the manners and customs of both sides and observe the old-established rules regarding supply of transport, etc. There shall be no restriction in grazing animals in the pasture reserved for the animals of the Government traders, but the poelle shall not be allowed to abuse this privilege by bringing animals from outside to graze on it. Both parties shall adhere strictly to the agreement thus arrived between Tibet and Sinpas (Kashmiris), and the two frontier officers shall act in perfect accord and co-operation.


1. Source: The Indian Society of International Law, The Sino-Indian Boundary, (New Delhi, 1962), pp. 4-5. Reprinted by permission, This Treaty was signed and sealed by Thanedar Bisram and Kalon Rigzin of Ladkh, and two stewards of the Tibetan governor at Gartok; witnessed by Yeshe Wangyal.

Reproduced from M. C. van Walt van Praag's Status of Tibet: History, Rights and Prospects in International Law. With permission of the author.

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